♦DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACADEMIC SYSTEM OF CHINESE INDIGENOUS URBAN PLANNING
ABSTRACT: In thousands of years of urban planning and construction practice, China has formed an indigenous and original planning system different from the planning values, principles, and methods of the West. In view of the problems existing in the inheritance of Chinese indigenous urban planning, this paper puts forward the idea of developing an academic system of Chinese indigenous urban planning. Based on the analysis on the concept and characteristics of Chinese indigenous urban planning, the paper expounds on the feasibility of developing an academic system and related thoughts and principles, and discusses the ten core issues related to the academic system of Chinese indigenous urban planning. The paper attempts to explore a path for the development of the academic system of Chinese original urban planning system in modern times and lay a scientific foundation for the academic inheritance of Chinese indigenous urban planning.
KEYWORDS:Chinese indigenous urban planning; academic system; development idea; development principle; inheritance in modern times
♦DISSEMINATION OF PLANNING KNOWLEDGE: PROGRESS, TYPE, AND FOCUS
Author：CAO Kang; LI Qinshi; ZHANG Yi
ABSTRACT: The study on planning knowledge dissemination, in the name of transnational flow of planning ideas or traveling planning ideas, has boomed in the international planning intellectual circle during the last two decades in the context of globalization and regional integration. It is also critical to study this issue in China as it is key to promote the knowledge dissemination following the Belt and Road Initiative. On the premise of defining planning knowledge dissemination, and based on the current research on the changes of research domain and stage division, this paper proposes the following views. In terms of the dissemination process, there are three overlapping stages: the colonial period till the late 20th century; generation and improvement stage of modern urban planning; globalization and anti-globalization stage. Meanwhile, this paper summarizes the foci of scholars at each stage. In terms of the dissemination types, the paper proposes two types: one-way dissemination and networked dissemination, with the former being further divided into three subtypes of colonialized dissemination, aid-based dissemination, and learning-based dissemination, while the latter being further divided into two subtypes of equivalent dissemination and game-based dissemination. In terms of the characteristics of each stage, it can be divided into colonialized and aid-based dissemination, equivalent and learning-based dissemination, and game-based dissemination. The findings of this paper are theoretically valuable for the dissemination of China's spatial planning modes and experience as public goods in the world.
KEYWORDS:planning knowledge; planning idea; planning experience; transnational dissemination; crossing border; the Belt and Road Initiative
♦VIRTUAL-PHYSICAL RELATIONSHIP OF FUTURE URBAN SPACE: BASED ON THE EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY
Author：DAI Zhimei; HUA Chen; TONG Lei; SHEN Yujie
ABSTRACT: In the past, the cognition of urban space was carried out mainly from the different aspects of the physical dimension. However, with the development of digital technology, the virtual dimension has also become an important perspective of spatial cognition in the field of urban planning, and the evolution of technology has an effect on the virtual-physical relationship of urban space. Based on the analysis and comparison on the characteristics of different digit a l technologies and the characteristics of space under the influence of them, this paper points out that the virtual-physical space has emerged due to the changes of XR technology in the contents and methods of interaction, and the virtual-physical space is characterized by visibility, three-dimensional sense of space, and real-time interaction with the physical environment. The paper further analyzes the different virtual-physical relationships of urban space under the influence of digital technology, including the transfer of physical space to virtual space, the extension of virtual space in physical space, the supplement of virtual-physical space to virtual space, and the coordination of physical space to virtual-physical space. Among them, the virtual-physical space has an impact on regional connection and urban public space. The virtual-physical relationship of future urban space will put forward new requirements for the urban planning and design: the dual attributes of urban space as both virtual and physical space will bring dual requirements to planners, and the interaction between the virtual and physical urban space will change the urban planning and design process. As the impact deepens, it is necessary to discuss how to protect the physical space and standardize the design, storage, and use of virtual space and virtual-physical space, and to pay attention to the changes in social relations and socio-economic development.
KEYWORDS: virtual-physical relationship; virtual-physical space; virtual space; physical space; interaction between virtual and physical; XR technology
♦EVALUATION AND REFLECTION ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SPECIAL PLAN FOR ELDERLY CARE UNDER THE PRINCIPLE OF "BETTER CARE FOR THE ELDERLY": A CASE STUDY OF THE SPECIAL PLAN FOR THE LAYOUT OF ELDERLY CARE FACILITIES IN SHANGHAI AND ITS DISTRICTS
ABSTRACT: Planning implementation evaluation is essential to improve territorial planning. From the perspective of the whole process management, this paper develops an evaluation framework of "planning conduction, spatial implementation and service effect". Based on the data of "Shanghai Elderly Care Service Platform", the paper evaluates the implementation of the plan for the layout of elderly care facilities in Shanghai and its districts, finding that the plan has realized efficient transmission between the city and its districts, sufficient supply of facilities, supply of key deficiencies in the spatial layout, significant improvement of facility standards, etc. However, there is still room for improvement in layout matching, service satisfaction, utilization rate of facilities, etc. Guided by the goal from "providing access to the elderly care" to "better care for the elderly", the plan should maintain the advantages of traditional indicator allocation to ensure the bottom line of space. In addition, more importance should be attached to targeted compilation, public participation and flexible adaptation, so as to enhance the plan's response to high-quality development. Through an exploration on the whole process from planning compilation, implementation, effect evaluation to dynamic maintenance, this paper aims to provide assistance for the reform of territorial planning.
KEYWORDS: plan for the layout of elderly care facilities; implementation evaluation; planning compilation; providing access to the elderly care; better care for the elderly
♦COLLECTIVE ACTION OF AUTONOMOUS REGENERATION IN HISTORIC AREAS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SELECTIVE INCENTIVES: BASED ON THE EMPIRICAL STUDY OF "XIAOXIHU" IN NANJING
Author：GAO Yu; ZHANG Jingxiang
ABSTRACT: The people-oriented concept reveals multiple sets of conflicts, such as land-property rights, public-private, regeneration-protection, and relocation-stay, in the regeneration of historic areas. It also exposes the limitations of previous urban regeneration policies and experiences, and the urgency of exploring new approaches. Based on the empirical study on the regeneration of "Xiaoxihu" historic area in Nanjing, it is found that the regeneration of historic area under the new concept needs to accomplish three missions, i.e., improving people's livelihood, conserving history, and incubating autonomous regeneration. In the project implementation, the government, property owners, developers, and all sectors of society form collective actions of reciprocating game, replacing the opportunistic movement of avoiding game guided by the principle of "priority to growth". By building "small groups of stakeholders" for relocation, reconstruction and autonomous regeneration and providing material and non-material "selective incentives", it gradually dissolves all kinds of conflicts, promoting the innovation of regeneration policy, and implementing various related projects. Consequently, it sucessfully forms a rules-based regeneration approach for historic areas, with the highlights being put on the new path to explore long-term operation and redistribution of regenerated space.
KEYWORDS: historic areas; urban regeneration; collective action; selective incentive; autonomous regeneration; operation
♦RESEARCH ON THE SENSITIVITY OF URBAN LAND REGENERATION
Author：DUAN Degang; WANG Tianling; JI Wenrui
ABSTRACT: Looking into the second half of urbanization, urban regeneration in parallel with accelerated urbanization constitutes the main mode of urbanization transformation and development in China under the new normal. The 14th Five-Year Plan clearly proposes launching urban regeneration, promoting urbanization construction with counties as important carrier, and pushing forward the coordinated development of large, medium, and small cities and small towns. However, there is still a lack of reasonable overall arrangement and operational guidance in the existing practices, and it is urgent to explore a scientific method for determining the sequence of urban regeneration. In this paper, the sensitivity of urban land regeneration was used to measure the possibility of regeneration and the corresponding indicator system was established. The evaluation was carried out in combination with the old city of Qingshui in Gansu Province, and the results were used to guide the regeneration and verify the scientificity of the evaluation system. The results show that the sensitivity value obtained from the evaluation of objective conditions can represent the possibility of land regeneration, and is an important basis for judging the sequence of land regeneration, which is of great significance to identify the key and difficult points, determine the sequence, and promote the effective implementation of regeneration planning.
KEYWORDS: urban regeneration; sequence of regeneration; possibility of regeneration; sensitivity of land regeneration; Qingshui County in Gansu Province
♦A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE INFLUENCING FACTORS AND MECHANISM OF INTER-CITY COMMUTING BETWEEN SUZHOU AND SHANGHAI
Author：WANG Yao; NIU Xinyi; LI Zhipeng
ABSTRACT: This paper explores the influencing factors and mechanism of inter-city commuting between Suzhou and Shanghai based on an empirical study on inter-city commuting between Suzhou and Shanghai central cities in the Shanghai Metropolitan Area. Firstly, it quantitatively measures the overall spatial characteristics of inter-city commuting between Suzhou and Shanghai by using multi-source big data and identifies the influencing factors of macro policies. Secondly, the influencing factors of individual decision making are analyzed through questionnaire survey. Using the "macro constraint + individual decision making" analytical framework, it explores the mechanism of influencing factors of commuting between Suzhou and Shanghai. It is found that there are two typical modes - "residence-led mode" and "employment-led mode" of inter-city commuting between Suzhou and Shanghai. The two modes have common influencing factors, including industrial layout, housing and public service, and transportation facility at the macro constraint level; occupation and income, family and social relation, commuting cost at the individual decision making level. However, they differ in the mechanism. The "employment-led mode" is formed by the job opportunities provided by the high-value industries in the central city of Shanghai, which is a phenomenon of high-quality labor agglomeration driven by the market. The "residence-led mode" is formed by the housing opportunities provided by suitable housing and public service supply, which is a phenomenon of residential population diffusion under the comprehensive action of housing market and housing policy. Regional transportation facilities are the necessary conditions for the formation of the two modes.
KEYWORDS: inter-city commuting; Shanghai; Suzhou; influening mechanism; employment-led mode; residence-led mode
♦RESEARCH ON LOW-CARBON COMMUTING WILLINGNESS OF BEIJING-TIANJIN-HEBEI RESIDENTS BASED ON STRUCTURAL EQUATION
Author：ZHANG Yuyang; ZOU Zhe; ZHANG Huan
ABSTRACT: Revealing the inner relationship between residents' low-carbon travel willingness and residents' social capital factors is helpful to understand the formation mechanism of residents' low-carbon commuting willingness, thereby promoting residents' low-carbon commuting behavior and reducing urban transportation carbon emissions. Totally 404 valid samples of Beijing- Tianjin-Hebei urban residents are used to study the response of low-carbon commuting willingness by the public to social capital and other factors by using exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis, and structural equation modeling. The result shows that the behavioral attitude of low-carbon commuting, social capital and low-carbon commuting promotion measures will affect residents' low-carbon commuting willingness. The path coefficient of residents' low-carbon behavioral attitude to low-carbon commuting willingness is 0.58, indicating that it produces the greatest impact. Social capital possession occupies the second place with a path coefficient of 0.54, and the attitude toward flexible measures to promote low-carbon commuting occupies the third place with a path coefficient of 0.52. Therefore, cultivating good behavioral attitudes toward low-carbon commuting, improving the social capital possession of urban residents, and enhancing the service level of low-carbon commuting measures can effectively increase the low-carbon commuting willingness of residents.
KEYWORDS: urban transportation; social capital; structural equation modeling; low-carbon commuting willingness
♦A STUDY ON THE INFLUENCING FACTORS OF URBAN EPIDEMIC-SUSCEPTIBLE COMMUNITIES AND THEIR CAUSAL PATHWAYS: A QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT: Using a qualitative comparative analysis method, this paper analyzes 24 communities in Wuhan City during the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic based on a resilience perspective, in order to explore the key variables affecting the effective response of urban communities to the outbreak, and the paths of possible causal condition combinations among the variables by developing a community resilience assessment framework. The study finds that community resilience is lower in marginal communities, stranger communities, and ineffective communities. Epidemics are most likely to break out in poor communities that lack spatial resilience and are populated by vulnerable groups, i.e., capital resilience is lacked, but middle- and even wealthy-class populated communities may also become outbreak sites if they lack spatial, social, and governance resilience; while the emergence of ineffective communities suggests that even if communities are full of spatial resilience and are not populated by vulnerable groups, if they lack sufficient social and governance resilience, and are ineffective in collective actions, they can also become high-risk communities. Spatial resilience rather than capital resilience constitutes the key impact dimension of risk-susceptible communities, and the lack of both social resilience and governance resilience is a core characteristic of these communities.
KEYWORDS: risk management; epidemic-susceptible community; community resilience; qualitative comparative analysis
♦COMMUNITY-ORIENTED PRIMARY CARE PLAN IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND ITS ENLIGHTENMENT TO CHINA
Author：BAI Jiayuan; LU Wei
ABSTRACT: The 14th Five-Year Plan proposed that the focus of public health development should be shifted from "anti-epidemic" to "prevention", with emphasis on improving the hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system and building a community-based primary healthcare system. Urban healthcare facility planning, as a government-oriented and strategic intervention measure, should be forward-looking and exemplary. Although health-specific planning has been included in statutory documents, it is still a relatively macro plan, which lacks general adaptive framework to guide the implementation at community level. Therefore, this study summarizes planning experience of Community- Oriented Primary Care from foreign countries, and points out that the current thoughts guiding the healthcare facility planning compilation in China are inflexible. It proposes building a framework guided by the thought of "qualitative indicators first and then quantitative indicators", and updating the coordinated process through a community participation mechanism to clarify the role of community healthcare facility planning in the health system. Those suggestions provide a sustainable perspective and an overall approach to further improve and refine the implementation framework of urban healthcare facility planning at the micro level in response to the development of China's primary healthcare system.
KEYWORDS: healthy community; urban healthcare facility plan; community-oriented; primary care
♦RESEARCH ON THE DISPERSED DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM OF RURAL INDUSTRY SINCE 2000: BASED ON THE PERSPECTIVE OF POST-EARTHBOUND EMBEDDEDNESS
Author：LI Guangbin; LI Yani; ZHOU Min; WAGN Yong
ABSTRACT: Since 2000, under the dual de-embedding mechanism of the market and the government, why has rural industry not moved towards agglomeration development? Based on the perspective of post-earthbound embeddedness, this paper attempts to explain the microscopic mechanism of the decentralized development of rural industries from three dimensions of economy, society, and governance. The study shows that rural industry and post-earthbound society have the characteristics of symbiosis and isomorphism. Around the development of rural land and its value-added benefits, a complex "network of interests" has been constructed among enterprises, village collective organizations, and villagers, while the "network of relations" embedded in the "network of interests" has made the cooperation more solid. Rural planning should pay attention to the rural social scene rooted in rural industrial development, and a more refined strategy should be adopted to promote the governance of rural industrial land.
KEYWORDS：rural industry; dispersion mechanism; post-earthbound; embeddedness
♦RESEARCH ON THE EVOLUTION AND COMPARISON OF PLANNING EDUCATION ACCREDITATION IN CHINA AND THE UK
Author：JIANG Tianjie; CHEN Bing
ABSTRACT：By reviewing the reform of accreditation standards （contents）， this paper explores the evolution of planning education accreditation in China and the UK from a longitudinal perspective and analyzes and summarizes their characteristics at different stages. A comparative analysis of the key factors that affect the current planning education accreditation in China and the UK has been conducted, including the accreditation committee, the scope of accreditation, application conditions, accreditation criteria, the relationship between education accreditation and practice certification, etc. It is concluded that it is worth learning from the UK's experience in reconciling the link between planning education and the planning industry, creating a culture of self-monitoring, and broadening the scope of accreditation. Furthermore, it is suggested that the planning education accreditation reform in China should focus on the balance of macro and micro factors, the integration of internal and external factors, the adoption of a value orientation approach, as well as scope expansion and fine management, thereby ensuring that the quality of planning practitioners would be recognized by employers and other relevant stakeholders and could meet the needs of future development.
KEYWORDS：planning education; professional accreditation; quality assurance; practice certification; urbanization; planning practice
♦COMPETITION-DRIVEN RURAL PLANNING TEACHING REFORM: REVIEW AND PROSPECT OF NATIONAL RURAL PLANNING COMPETITION OF COLLEGE STUDENTS
Author：LUAN Feng; YIN Qingmei; SUN Yizhou; GAO Bangyan
ABSTRACT: The implementation of the rural revitalization strategy was proposed at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, which opened a new era for China's rural development and put forward higher requirements for the development of rural planning and personnel training. In order to actively respond to the call of the times and promote the development of rural planning education as soon as possible, the Rural Planning and Construction Academic Committee of Urban Planning Society of China launched the National Rural Planning Competition of College Students. This paper first briefly reviews the organization and development process of the Competition, and then deeply explores its significance in promoting the development of rural planning teaching and encouraging college teachers and students to practice rural revitalization strategy. The research results show that the Competition has made positive contributions to rural planning teaching in many aspects, including promoting the development of planning teaching, guiding the content and positioning of teaching objects and planning methods, and promoting the teaching methods of multiple forces to jointly help and feed back rural development.
KEYWORDS: rural planning teaching; teaching reform; National Rural Planning Competition of College Students