City Planning Review

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City Planning Review(2020.9)



Author: SHI Nan


Thoughts on Community Governance in Wuhan UNDER THE TEST OF COVID-19 EPIDEMIC

Author: SHENG Hongtao; ZHOU Qiang; WANG Xie; WEI Dong

ABSTRACT: The investigation on the fight of Wuhan against the COVID-19 epidemic indicates that community organizations have played an irreplaceable role in terms of control, dispatch, service, and medical assistance. Meanwhile, it also reveals that there are a number of problems, such as staff shortage, disordered organization, and lack of smart management. It is necessary to promote the modernization of community governance from the perspectives of optimizing the residential space, providing more service facilities, improving the governance system, strengthening the management team, creating better neighborhood relations, and improving governance measures.

KEYWORDS: Wuhan; COVID-19 epidemic; community governance; modernization


Research Framework of City Vulnerability and Planning Response in the Outbreak of Major Epidemics

Author: QIU Jian; LI Jing; MAO Suling; LI Yi

ABSTRACT: City vulnerability was completely unmasked during the COVID-19 epidemic. It is the basic responsibility of city planning to improve the ability of cities to resist disasters. The results of planning response to this epidemic should be summarized in time. Literature review shows that the academic studies regarding city vulnerability theory and planning practice based on the health hazard are rare both in China and abroad, which thus calls for the establishment of research frameworks. The framework proposed in this paper focuses on exploring the spatial response law of city vulnerability in the context of epidemic spread. Using GIS, spatial map, cellular automata, seroepidemiological survey, and other technical approaches, the paper carries out an interdisciplinary research involving the knowledge of city planning and preventive medicine and studies the spatial interactive relationship between major epidemics and city vulnerability. From the two perspectives of epidemic spread and city vulnerability, the paper establishes the grid dynamic simulation model of epidemic spread and the spatial map model of city vulnerability respectively, carries out spatial coupling of the two models, and then describes the coupling mechanism and reveals the coupling law. On such a basis, the technical regulation and control strategies for planning response to epidemics are accordingly formulated. It is expected that the research findings can enrich and improve the comprehensive disaster prevention and mitigation planning theory, safeguard the cities, and building the “healthy and safe” human settlements.

KEYWORDS: major epidemics; city vulnerability; spatial map; spatial coupling; planning response


Recovery of Urban Vita lity and Its Influencing Factors: Exploration Based on the Scenario of the Outbreak of Public Health Emergencies

Author: MA Qiwei; KAN Changcheng; GONG Zhaoya; DANG Anrong

ABSTRACT: The outbreak of COVID-19 has deeply influenced the economic and social development of most cities in China. In response, the quantitative evaluation of urban vitality recovery and its influencing factors is essential to support governments at all levels in formulating and deploying more targeted policies. Specifically, this paper uses multi-source spatiotemporal big data to quantitatively analyze the dynamic characteristics of urban vitality recovery, summarizes urban vitality recovery models, and discusses the spatial distribution characteristics of each model. Then, with the help of statistical methods, the paper systematically analyzes the impact of different influencing factors on the formation of different recovery models. According to different urban vitality recovery trajectories, it is found that there are six urban recovery models in China with different spatial distribution characteristics, and the vitality recovery ability of some national central cities still needs to be further improved. Among all influencing factors, regional centrality, intensity of governance, and external import risk have significant effects on urban vitality recovery, while the direct effect of medical service capability is less significant. Based on the above analyses, this paper puts forward specific policy recommendations for the subsequent recovery of urban production and life.

KEYWORDS: public health emergency; multisource spatiotemporal big data; urban vitality recovery; multinomial logistic regression


Discussion on the Logical Connotation and Development Path of Rural “Welfare” Industry

Author: DUAN Degang; CHEN Lian; GUO Jinmei

ABSTRACT: By observing and thinking about the livelihood of the villagers returning to the village during the epidemic, the role and value of rural industry are analyzed from the three perspectives of national governance, urban-rural relations, and humanism. Based on many years of observation and thinking in the practice of rural work, we believe that China’s rural areas are increasingly facing non-agricultural industrialization and low value of agricultural profits; industrial development mainly serves the city, ignoring the village’s own demands; capital goes to the countryside to pursue profit with low capacity benefiting the village; serious homogenization of rural industries and uneven product quality exist. These problems will exacerbate the imbalance between urban and rural development, threaten the realization of the goal of urban-rural integration, and hinder the implementation of rural revitalization strategies. Then according to the social equity theory and welfare theory, that is, the protection of the interests of vulnerable groups and the supply of welfare are both the premise of national stability and the representation of the degree of political civilization, this paper proposes the logical connotation and type of rural “welfare” industries, and makes relevant suggestions on the rural “welfare” industry development path based on the diamond model.

KEYWORDS: public health events; rural “welfare” industry; diamond model; the logical connotation; development path


Strategies for Improving the Quality of Urban Street Space Oriented to Promoting Public Health: Perspective from Spatial Quality

Author: CHEN Jingjia; ZHANG Zhaoxi; LONG Ying

ABSTRACT: In recent years, space quality and design of streets have received increasing attention. In the field of public health, the insufficient quality of urban spatial characteristics or even disorder have been proved to directly or indirectly affect the physical and mental health of individuals, implying high-risk influence on individual behavior and delivering negative health outcomes. The improvement of micro-scale spatial features is beneficial to enhancing the activity-friendliness of public space and shaping positive psychological perceptions, thereby promoting public health. Focusing on the core goal of creating high-quality urban street space, this study takes the street space of the public space as the research object, and pays attention to the phenomenon of insufficient local space quality. Based on the current quality and significant characteristics of street space quality in China, it sorts out relevant design strategies in various street design guidelines for cities at home and abroad, and proposes design response strategies for different space quality factors, so as to explore the practical points to solve the problem of poor street space quality or physical disorder in Chinese cities, to pave a way for public health-oriented environmental maintenance, improvement and organic renewal, and to further serve the refined urban space management and design.

KEYWORDS: public space; space quality; public health; street design guidelines; quality improvement


Research on Health-Oriented Human Settlements Planning in the Context of Healthy China: A Case Study of Hangzhou

Author: XIE Jin; QUAN Minghui; XIE Enli

ABSTRACT: Based on the foundation of environmental behavior theory and demand theory, this paper puts forward the concept of “health oriented human settlements” and establishes a hypothetical model of relationship between healthy human settlement elements, basic attributes and residents’ perceived needs. By means of investigation and questionnaire to collect data and using confirmatory factor analysis to test the hypothesis, the paper puts forward planning strategy of healthy human settlements to provide reference for the construction of healthy city. The research shows that: the elements of traffic environment, humanity environment and recreation environment produce significant positive effects on basic attributes of healthy habitat environment and residents’ perceived needs, among which pedestrian roads, living atmosphere and entertainment facilities are the most important impact factors. The basic attributes of healthy habitat environment have significant positive effects on residents’ perceived needs, and recreational environmental factors impose the greatest impact on them. The healthy and livable characteristics of health habitat environment are notable, and the residents’ need for a sense of identity in their habitat environment is the most significant. It is suggested that to be health-oriented, the rational planning of urban human settlements which is conducive to residents’ physical and mental health should be carried out.

KEYWORDS: healthy China; human settlements; basic attributes; perceived needs


Exploration and Reflection on the Research of Medical and Health Facilities Planning Standards in the Case of COVID-19 Epidemic

Author: ZHOU Yajie; ZHANG Juan; GUO Feng

ABSTRACT: Based on the situation and problems in the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic, the research team of Standards for Urban Public Service Facilities Planning carries out timely summarization and reflections on the research of medical and health facilities planning standards. It is found that the standards have innovations in the aspects such as attaching importance to establishing medical and health facilities at different levels, setting up land use indicators according to the actual service population, and making separate provisions to public hospitals and social hospitals, which can lead to a better response to the public health emergency. However, there also are deficiencies: the concept and indicator system fail to include the additional facilities and indicators required by the public health emergency; the medical and health facilities planning standards are not checked with other public service facilities, which is not conducive to the multifunctional use of the facilities in the special time; the planning standards for community health service centers need to be improved; the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) has a lower status and its planning and construction standards lag behind. In the end, this paper puts forward some preliminary suggestions for the further improvement in the research of related standards. KEYWORDS: medical and health facilities; planning standard; public health emergency


On the Relationship Between the Civil Code and Spatial Planning

Author: L Yiping; ZHAO Min

ABSTRACT: The Civil Code of the People’s Republic of China has been adopted at the third session of the 13th National People’s Congress and will come into force in January 2021. The Civil Code deals with civil issues, while civil relations and civil rights are closely related to the administrative legislation and administrative actions. This paper analyzes the relationship between the Civil Code and the property law and administrative law. Then the paper elaborates the main content of the Civil Code concerning spatial planning and discusses some civil dilemmas and solutions in the implementation of spatial plans. Finally, it discusses the connection between the spatial planning system and relevant provisions of the Civil Code. It is aimed to deepen planners’ understanding of the Civil Code, as well as to promote the institutional construction of the spatial planning system in China.

KEYWORDS: the Civil Code; the spatial planning system; civil relations; administrative relations; institutional construction


Study on the Mechanism of Vertical Conduction of Spatial Elements in German Planning System: Based on the Perspective of Territorial and Spatial Planning

Author: ZHOU Yixiao; TAN Zongbo

ABSTRACT: Based on the understanding of conductive elements among existing plans in China, this paper refers to German planning system to discuss the contents and mechanism of potential elements to be conducted through territorial and spatial planning. Interviews and literature review have been applied to support following subjects: (1) technical contents and forms of spatial elements conducted through German planning system; (2) institutional structure behind conduction mechanism among distinguishable elements; (3) cognitive perspectives towards planning and its influences on the effectiveness of conduction. This paper finds that in the context of institutional factors like local autonomy, German planning system is only capable of transferring certain policy elements, infrastructure project intentions, and a few areas representing regional interests based on mutual feedback principle. In the aim of ecological civilization, territorial and spatial planning in China should further allocate efforts in reflecting the “will of the state”, guaranteeing consultation mechanism based on legislation, and optimizing the role of planning in marketization.

KEYWORDS: Germany; planning system; territorial and spatial planning; spatial element; vertical conduction


Enlightenment of Economic Experiment Method to Planning Evaluation

Author: CHEN Ming; DAI Shenzhi

ABSTRACT: Beginning with the analysis of the theoretical value and application prospect of economic experimental methods, this paper discusses the endogenous decision-making attitude measurement method and experimental rules of adaptive planning evaluation. It is found that the endogenous decision-making law of behavioral economics also exists in planning evaluation. On this basis, this paper puts forward the design principle of “homogeneity” which should be highlighted in the planning scheme and the analysis method of “directionality” which should be stressed when analyzing the key needs.

KEYWORDS: economic experiments; planning evaluation; behavioral economics; endogenous decision-making; prospect theory


Characteristics and Thinking of Text Expression Technology in City Master Plan: A Case Study of Shanghai City Master Plan (2017—2035)

Author: WANG Xinzhe; HUANG Jianzhong

ABSTRACT: It is crucial for the reform of master planning to develop a planning text document with high-standard content and format that can express and translate planning decisions precisely and effectively. This paper examines the system and expression status of master planning text documents, and explores the external form, content structure, stylistic selection, and language expression of master planning text documents based on case studies. It points out that the text can follow the format of “statutory provisions”, which is beneficial to underlining the seriousness of the master plan and to highlighting the nature of its “policy documents”. In addition, it suggests that the content of the planning text document should be enriched; that the text should no longer aim to obtain approvals only, but to enhance the text logic and reading experience; and that the expressing format and content should be improved to fit in with related policies.

KEYWORDS: city master plan; text expression; statutory provisions; policy documents; logical framework


Spatial Extent of Aerotropolis: An Empirical Study on Beijing Capital International Airport of China

Author: HU Ke; LIAO Cong; HE Dan; DAI Teqi; LIAO Jiayi

ABSTRACT: This paper conducts an empirical analysis on the aerotropolis of Beijing Capital International Airport, the largest passenger airport in China, identifies its spatial extent, and analyzes its spatial characteristics. The results show that businesses tend to concentrate in the surrounding area of Beijing Capital International Airport, and an aerotropolis is formed within a radius of 5.5 km around the airport, which is about an 11-minute drive from the airport. Based on this radius, the area of the aerotropolis is approximately equivalent to the sum of the area of Beijing’s Dongcheng District and Xicheng District. From 1996 to 2010, the density and growth rate of businesses in the aerotropolis were higher than the average level in the suburbs of Beijing, but lower than the average level of the central city in Beijing. The aerotropolis of Beijing Capital International Airport is already one of business concentration centers in the suburbs of Beijing, though from the perspective of the whole city, businesses are more likely to occur in the central city.

KEYWORDS: aerotropolis; spatial extent; extent identification; spatial characteristic; Beijing Capital International Airport


Practice and Exploration of Transportation in Big Cities During Construction of Territorial and Spatial Planning: Taking the Third Round of Transportation Development Strategic Planning in Guangzhou as an Example

Author: MA Xiaoyi; ZHANG Haixia

ABSTRACT: In order to adapt to the new development requirements, the third round of transportation development strategic planning in Guangzhou has been completed after two years’ preparation under the national strategic requirements for the construction of a powerful transportation country and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, in combination with the pilot work of the national territorial and spatial planning. Firstly, this paper analyzes the periodic changes of urban, human, technological and environmental factors that affect the development of urban transportation, and it is considered that the previous urban transportation planning positioning and content are facing changes. Secondly, based on the practical experience of planning, this paper proposes that the transportation planning of big cities should be clear and more forward-looking, focus on more accurate and scientific content, reflect more authoritative policies, etc. Finally, the planning significance of strategic planning, the innovation of organizational forms and effects, and the characteristics of the main achievements are summarized, which fully embody the necessity of systematic research on transportation in big cities during the construction period of national territorial and spatial planning.

KEYWORDS: territorial space; transportation planning; strategic planning; a country with strong transportation network; urban transportation; policy


♦ Perspectives of Suzhou Rural Space Development Under the Background of Urban-Rural Integration

Author: LIU Bin; HUA Ye; YANG Zhongwei; ZHOU Siying

ABSTRACT: Suzhou villages have experienced such development modes as “Southern Jiangsu Mode” and “new Southern Jiangsu Mode”. Under the development background of urban-rural integration, spatial differentiation features in rural area of Suzhou are obvious, which are presented in four types, namely spatial transformation, spatial retention, spatial penetration, and spatial maintenance. And correspondingly, there are four development countermeasures, including restructuring organization, transformation and adjustment, landscape construction, and coordinated protection. The expansion of urban land has brought about a series of urban and rural ecological environment problems, based on which the ecological trend of rural space is obvious, manifested in three aspects: maintenance of urban and rural ecological security and ecological connection of marginal areas, strengthening of ecological connection between rural agricultural space and landscape space, and obvious return trend of rural landscape.

KEYWORDS: urban and rural integration; Suzhou; rural space; perspective


Analysis of Effects Evaluation System of Rural Construction Land Re-Development After Implementation: A Comparative Study on Two Village

Author: ZHENG Wolin; ZHENG Rongbao; XIE Hao; TANG Xiaolian

Abstract: The re-development of village construction land is an effective means to promote economical and intensive land use. At present, the re-development of rural construction land is mainly carried out in the form of projects. In order to ensure the orderly progress of projects, it is of great significance to scientifically carry out evaluation on re-development of rural construction land after implementation. This paper establishes the effects evaluation system of rural construction land re-development after implementation which is composed of the reference layer of target realization, the reference layer of land management and the reference layer of development efficiency. Then based on the relevant procedural documents, this paper puts forward the method of the effects evaluation system of rural construction land redevelopment after implementation, taking Linhe Village and Hengsha Village as the study area. The result shows that the evaluation index system is applicable and referential to related study, while difficulties still exist in index establishment and quantization. Therefore, related study in the future should include three aspects: first, the study on big data related to the effects evaluation system after implementation of rural construction land re-development should be enhanced; second, explorations on the mechanism applied in the process of evaluation should be carried out; third, it is necessary to study the supporting policies on effects evaluation after implementation of rural construction land re-development.

Keywords: rural construction land; redevelopment; evaluation system; urban regeneration


♦ Effects of Stock-Based Planning from the Perspective of MultiStakeholder Governance: A Case Study on the Regeneration Project of Hubei Village in Shenzhen

Author: LI Yang; SONG Jusheng

ABSTRACT: The modernization of national governance capability requires that the stock-based planning practice of local governments should be localized and refined. Taking the regeneration project of Hubei Village as the research object, this paper studies the effects of Shenzhen’s stock based planning system from the two perspectives of spatial institutional logic and project implementation mechanism. The study shows that the stock-based planning is a kind of spatial system engineering that transfers land from assets to capital, and its effect is embodied in the production and organization efficiency of urbanized space based on open market. It is necessary to carry out systematic institutional improvements for stock-based planning from the perspectives of planning content, planning objective, technical path, etc., so as to complete the technical transformation from spatial construction to spatial governance.

KEYWORDS: stock-based planning; multistakeholder governance; urban regeneration