♦UNDERLYING LOGIC OF URBAN SPATIAL GOVERNANCE AND THE PRACTICE OF BEIJING
Author: SHI Xiaodong; XU Qinzheng; WANG Jili
ABSTRACT: Only by following the law of urban development and understanding the underlying logic can we do a good job in urban work. For a long time, the theoretical construction of urban planning has focused on top-level thinking, leading to a disconnection between theory and practice. This article first reviews the evolution of planning governance in different periods. From the perspective of “governance balance”, it points out that the mission of planning governance is to balance spatial values and interests. Planners need to reconstruct the urban planning governance system from the bottom level and micro perspectives. Secondly, by comparing the current relationship between urban operation and planning system, it points out that there is still a mismatch between the hierarchical planning system and the logic of urban development, which increases the difficulty of planning implementation. Finally, based on the experience of Beijing’s planning governance, it proposes a capacity framework centered on the “Eight Directions and Eight Forces” that responds to the underlying logic of planning governance in the new era.
KEYWORDS: urban planning governance; underlying logic; Beijing
♦EXPLORATION ON THE CONCEPT OF “COMMUTING” IN URBAN PLANNING AND DEFINITION OF “COMMUTING THRESHOLD”
Author: LI Fengqing; ZHANG Xin; ZHAO Min
ABSTRACT: The “jobs-housing commuting” is a common research topic in urban planning. However, the misuse of the concept of “commuting” in the research has led to misjudgments in urban planning. Based on a literature review, this paper first reviews the multidisciplinary research knowledge map on “commuting” and the origin of the concept in China and abroad. Then the paper clarifies that “commuting” is a specific concept that describes a journey in the context of “jobs-housing separation”. Employing an empirical study of Shanghai, it analyzes the research deviations that may result from the overgeneralization of “commuting” in the context of big data. By tracing the origin of “commuting”, it further proposes the threshold for the occurrence of “commuting”. Finally, assisted by big data, it points out the significance of an appropriate “commuting threshold” based on an accurate definition of “commuting”.
KEYWORDS: commuting; jobs-housing relationship; concept origin; commuting threshold; planning enlightenment
♦DISCRIMINATION OF THE CONCEPT OF LAND USE AND THE ORIGIN OF ITS TERMS
Author: SU Zhangna; ZHOU Jianyun
ABSTRACT: Land use is a core concept in the territorial planning knowledge system. However, there is a difference in the meaning of “land use” as a general word and as a term. As a term, it lacks a unified and clear definition, which makes it insufficient to support the disciplinary construction of territorial planning as a normative science. There is an urgent need for a precisely defined technical term to replace the general word of “land use”. Therefore, this paper analyzes the concepts of “land”, “use”, and “land use” respectively, examines the meaning and denotation of “land”, and traces the origin of the concept of land evolving from “substance”, to “resource”, and to “space”. By analyzing the meaning of the English word “use”, the paper distinguishes the differences in the usage of the word “use” as a verb and as a noun, with the former referring to the type of land use behavior and the latter referring to the status of land use. The findings reveal not only the restrictive rules behind the use behavior, including formal rule expressions and cultural and customary institutional background, but also the factor of right of use that generally influences land use. By discriminating the meanings of “use” (namely “to consume” and “to utilize”) and analyzing the essence of “use” as a right, this paper distinguishes three land use behaviors of “land consumption”, “land utilization”, and “land development”, and puts forward suggestions for the construction of the conceptual system of land use in the territorial planning.
KEYWORDS: land; use; land use (tudi shiyong ); land utilization; land use (tudi yongtu ); land development; land use right
♦RISK OF MIXED DEVELOPMENT AND STABILITY-ORIENTED REGENERATION PATH OF COMMUNITY-BASED NIGHT MARKET: A CASE STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF NIGHT MARKET IN YANGFAN RESETTLEMENT COMMUNITY IN CHANGSHA (2002-2021)
Author: CHEN Xuan; QI Dan; ZHANG Yang; DING Zhuhui
ABSTRACT: The night market is an important carrier of daily life and local economy. In recent years, night markets have been developed into two categories: combination with mature business areas or open communities. The staggered utilization of the site has led to the regeneration of the site. This paper focuses on the problems concerning development that community-based night markets face based on a case study. Through the analytical framework of “spatial transformation process – social relation reconstruction”, the paper shows the development process of night markets being accepted by and integrated into the community, autonomous transformation, and balance of responsibilities and rights in the past 20 years. It reveals how the re-updating of community-based night markets activate the means of production to achieve the growth of public benefits, and ensures that the goals can be weighed under the pressure of comprehensive urban environmental improvement relying on the dynamic openness of the grassroots governmental governance community. Compared with commodity housing areas with properties and old neighborhoods supported by special funds, the regeneration process brought by night markets in open resettlement areas is more likely to face with the “survival” crisis, so stability should be an important issue of community governance. This paper concludes that a stability-oriented regeneration path of community business based on the development of social relations is being formed in the context of the transformation of spatial value growth. Firstly, the path relies on establishing a consensus on the redistribution of public interest growth to regulate the trading of operational value-added revenue. Secondly, it relies on the community government to co-regulate the informal organizations that participate in local construction.
KEYWORDS: community-based night market; night economy; space-process; stability-based renewal; informal organizations; community governance
♦INDUSTRIAL SPACE SUPPLY UNDER A MARKET-ORIENTED URBAN REGENERATION MODE: A CASE STUDY OF SHENZHEN
Author: SI Nan
ABSTRACT: In the context of high-quality development, urban regeneration governance should pay more attention to detailed and practical issues. In terms of the market-oriented urban regeneration mode, this paper finds that financial balance, land use conditions and design standards are the main factors that must be addressed in the supply of industrial space. At the practical level, the paper deems that transforming the financial balance mode, adjusting land development policies, and improving design guidelines are optional innovative solutions. With the assistance of state-owned enterprises, it will be more likely to help local governments to achieve desired urban regeneration goals.
KEYWORDS: urban regeneration; market-oriented; industrial space; Shenzhen
♦RETURN MIGRANT ENTREPRENEURS-LED URBANIZATION OF COUNTIES IN CHINA AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS: THREE CASES IN HUBEI PROVINCE
Author: YU Le; LI Zhigang; LIU Da
ABSTRACT: In recent years, the urbanization of counties has gained significant attention. In order to meet the national strategic needs for accelerating the establishment of a “new development pattern”, it is imperative to answer the question of how central and western regions in China explore the county urbanization model based on their own advantages and local conditions in the context of return migration. Accordingly, this paper conducts an empirical study on Hanchuan, Xiantao, and Tianmen – three county-level cities in Hubei Province based on the first-hand survey data and qualitative research methods, finding that return migrant entrepreneurs (RMEs) have emerged as a major driving force behind urbanization of counties in central China. Specifically, the RME group comprises entrepreneurs and owners of family workshops. Influenced by state entrepreneurship policies, individual entrepreneurial initiatives, and the rise of the platform economy, RMEs have propelled the urbanization process within counties and townships, which present both positive and negative impacts. The positive impacts of county urbanization are manifold. To be specific, industrial parks have emerged as crucial economic growth centers, while clusters of family workshops have generated employment opportunities for the local population. Additionally, the development of township industries has incentivized migrants to consume in townships. The negative effects include: weak interconnections among return enterprises limiting industrial transformation and upgrading, and excessive or even illegal use of township land. To address these challenges, we recommend that the government should improve the county-level infrastructure and the supporting public service facilities. Moreover, efforts should be made to improve regional resources, enhance environmental benefits, and foster an environment that is attractive to RMEs. By doing so, China can offer robust support for the advancement of county urbanization.
KEYWORDS: return migration; return migrant entrepreneurs (RMEs); migrant workers; county urbanization; Hubei Province
♦CONSIDERATIONS ON “THREE ZONES AND THREE LINES” IN THE TERRITORIAL PLANNING SYSTEM
Author: SUN Xuedong
ABSTRACT: The “Three Zones and Three Lines” is an important part in the compilation and implementation of territorial planning at each level. This paper comprehensively reviews the practical explorations on the demarcation of planned zones and control lines under the previous background of multi-plan co-existence, as well as on the demarcation of “Three Zones and Three Lines” in both the “multi-plan integration” pilot programs at the city/county level and the spatial planning pilot programs at the province level. The paper then reconsiders the connotation, demarcation significance, and the change of thought of the “Three Zones and Three Lines” in the territorial planning system. Based on the demarcation practice across the country, the paper systematically summarizes the internal logic and demarcation methods of “Three Zones” and “Three Lines”, discusses the relationship between them, and proposes prospects and suggestions for the implementation and management of “Three Zones and Three Lines”.
KEYWORDS: Three Zones and Three Lines; strategic structure; planned zone; category of land use
♦INTEGRATION, TOPOLOGY, AND TRANSLATION: AN IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS METHOD OF URBAN FORM BASED ON KNOWLEDGE MAP
Author: YANG Junyan; SHAO Dian; WANG Peng; YIN Shunyao; MURONG Zhuoyi
ABSTRACT: Urban form is the specific physical space form of urban entity. At present, the quantitative analysis method of urban form is superficial, indicator-oriented, and fragmented, which is difficult to take into account the large-scale and high-precision characteristics of cities at the same time. This paper starts with the internal composition of urban spatial form, including spatial elements and spatial relations, and tries to introduce the relevant theories and technical methods of knowledge map to analyze urban form deeply. On the basis of clarifying the main constraints of quantitative analysis of urban form, this paper reveals the internal mechanism of urban form deconstruction by knowledge map through integration, topology, and translation. Then, a new analysis method based on knowledge map is proposed, which takes into account the large-scale and high-precision characteristics of urban form, including the hierarchical system construction of urban form elements from the perspective of fractal, the ontology construction of urban form, the topology of urban form characteristics, and the analysis of urban form based on map semantics. By studying the empirical case of the old town of Nanjing, the paper hopes to re-understand the old town form deeply through this method.
KEYWORDS: quantitative analysis of urban form; knowledge map; ontology construction; old town of Nanjing
♦RESTRUCTURING OF RURAL SETTLEMENT SPACE BASED ON RSSRI MEASUREMENT: A CASE STUDY OF CHONGQING
Author: LI Heping; CHI Xiaoyan; XIAO Jing; JIN Hong; XIE Xin
ABSTRACT: The restructuring of rural settlement space is an important means for the optimization of rural settlements and the implementation of rural revitalization strategy. Taking Chongqing as a case study, based on the RSSRI (rural settlement space reconstructing index) measurement, this paper evaluates the level and pattern of rural settlement space restructuring from economic, social, and spatial dimensions in different phases, and measures the coupling and coordination state of the three. Then the paper identifies the rural areas that have restructuring problems, and analyzes and summarizes the reasons for the formation of regional differences in terms of natural, socio-economic, and policy factors. In the end, it discusses the corresponding control and optimization strategies, in the hope of providing reference for the regional rural revitalization.
KEYWORDS: rural settlement; space restructuring; RSSRI; index measurement; Chongqing
♦REGIONAL COLLABORATION MODE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF YELLOW RIVER NATIONAL STRATEGY FROM A SPATIAL SCALE PERSPECTIVE: BASED ON A COLLABORATION CASE IN JINAN CITY
Author: L Junping; YIN Jingjing; WANG Dianli
ABSTRACT: The ecological protection and high-quality development strategy of the Yellow River Basin is an important component of China's strategy for rivers, which embodies the watershed governance mode and the way of implementing the national strategy, and is an important embodiment of the policy integration of Chinese-style watershed governance. Local governments are the main actors and key forces in the implementation of the Yellow River strategy. At the time of three years after the Yellow River strategy was proposed, it can be seen through a multi-scale splitting of the collaboration case of Jinan City space and a review of the collaborative mode and characteristics within the medium-sized area of the national strategy for the Yellow River Basin from a spatial scale that: the regional collaboration in the implementation of the Yellow River national strategy in Jinan City presents different modes and characteristics at the national, municipal, and county (district) scales, which are the national strategy-driven section-level mode, the network mode driven by innovation incentives, and the contract mode driven by equal consultation, respectively. The regional collaboration modes presented at different spatial scales are the result of the combination of governance needs of bottom-up synergistic subjects and top-down strategy-driven policy requirements.
KEYWORDS: spatial scale; regional collaboration; the Yellow River national strategy
♦A STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF URBAN GREEN SPACE ON RESIDENTS’ HEALTH BASED ON META-ANALYSIS
Author: YANG Chun; TAN Shaohua; GAO Yinbao; DONG Mingjuan; CHEN Luyao
ABSTRACT: In recent years, the health benefits of urban green space have drawn extensive attention from scholars in China and abroad, and the quantitative analysis of its health effects has become a main part in this field. This paper first systematically reviews the theoretical research on the relationship between urban green space and residents’ health, and uses the meta-analysis method to examine related literature in Medline, Web of Science (core set), and GreenFile databases. It summarizes the research trends, methods, experimental subjects, and properties of green space, and on this basis, carries out a quantitative meta-analysis on the conclusions of the 83 papers involved. The result shows that there is a significant correlation in effect size between urban green space and mortality, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine system, immune system, stress reduction, emotional valence, and cognitive ability. Then the paper analyzes the multiple potential paths for health effects of green space from three perspectives of the provision of ecosystem services, green space exposure, and green space use. In the end, the paper further explores the impacts of green space properties, regional differences, and subject/ respondent differences on the heterogeneity of health results, and puts forward corresponding enlightenment and suggestions for related planning.
KEYWORDS: urban green space; residents’ health effect; meta-analysis; spatial action path
♦A STUDY ON LOW-CARBON SPATIAL PLANNING TECHNOLOGY IN THE URBAN AREA OF COUNTIES UNDER THE CARBON PEAKING AND CARBON NEUTRALITY GOALS
Author: YU Tingting; LENG Hong; YUAN Qing
ABSTRACT: County is the “battle field” for the new urbanization, and the total carbon emissions of counties account for more than 50% in the country. Fulfilling the task of reducing carbon emissions and increasing the carbon absorption capacity in the urban areas of counties is the key to achieving the double-carbon goal. As an important way of carbon emission reduction by structural adjustment, the low-carbon spatial planning technology in the urban areas of counties can improve the low-carbon planning method system in territorial planning, and guide low-carbon town construction in the 14th Five-Year Plan period. This paper puts forward the research ideas and technical path of low-carbon spatial planning technology in the urban areas of counties, analyzes the low carbon planning tasks from five aspects, i.e., low-carbon layout, low-carbon industry, low-carbon transportation, low-carbon human settlements, and ecological vegetation, and correspondingly analyzes the impact indicators, control factors, and carbon emission correlation mechanism of low-carbon planning, using multiple regression analysis, scenario analysis, nuclear density analysis, building energy consumption simulation, and other methods. Thus, the paper proposes the technical system framework of universal-regional low-carbon spatial planning in the urban areas of counties, taking Changxing County as an example for technical application.
KEYWORDS: low-carbon spatial planning; low-carbon planning technology; low-carbon control element; urban areas of counties; double-carbon goal