♦REFLECTIONS ON THE SCALE EVOLUTION AND META-GOVERNANCE OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ZONE: THE CASE STUDY OF SHANGHAI ZHANGJIANG HIGH-TECH INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ZONE
Author：WANG Qixuan; ZHAO Min
ABSTRACT: In the practice of development zones in the past 40 years, various governance strategies have been explored through rescaling. Under the framework of historical institutionalism, combining scale theory and meta-governance, this paper traces the development process of Shanghai Zhangjiang High-Tech Industrial Development Zone, analyzes the evolution characteristics of Zhangjiang's governance system and spatial structure from the perspective of scale. And then it summarizes several key issues in its governance and explores the meta-governance strategy about the transformation and upgrading of development zones in the new development stage. It is found that under the dual influence of national policies and Shanghai's demands, Zhangjiang's development has undergone the stages of "initial creation, focusing on Zhangjiang, and independent innovation", and Zhangjiang’s administrative organizations have been reorganized at all stages of development in order to meet the development demands, and the spatial structure is characterized by generalization and core concentration. Focusing on high-quality development, it is proposed to clarify the rights and responsibilities of governments at all levels from the perspective of meta-governance, and coordinate the relationship between development zones and administrative regions, in order to promote the integrated development and efficient governance of development zones and urban areas.
KEYWORDS：development zone; Zhangjiang High-Tech Industrial Development Zone; scale evolution; meta-governance; historical institutionalism
♦RESEARCH ON DEVELOPMENT LAND INTENSITY FOR MAIN FUNCTIONAL ZONES: PATTERN IDENTIFICATION AND SPATIOTEMPORAL EVOLUTION
Author：YUE Wenze; ZHOU Qiushi; LI Mengmeng; ZHANG Xianchun
ABSTRACT: As the basic system of territorial space governance, the functional zoning strategy plays a crucial role in regulating and guiding land development activities and environment protection. Analyzing the changes in development land intensity – an important dimension of development land management of different functional zones – will deepen the theoretical understanding of the strategic effect of main functional zones and provide direction guidance for subsequent planning implementation. Therefore, based on the data of Chinese census and development land distribution from 2000 to 2020, this paper analyzes the change of development land intensity of counties in China, identifies the patterns and spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of development land for main functional zones, and examines the effect of changes in population size and land use intensity on development land expansion. The following results are found. Firstly, the period from 2000 to 2020 saw an increase in the development land intensity of urbanized areas, yet a significant decrease in development land intensity of restricted development zones. Secondly, "population shrinkage-land use intensity decline" is the most common land use pattern in China, and the development land use pattern presents different characteristics in urbanized areas and restricted development areas. Finally, the change of development land intensity is the dominant factor for development land expansion, which was responsible for 88.18% and 94.81% of development land expansion in the periods of 2000-2010 and 2010- 2020 respectively. Change of land use intensity plays an increasingly significant role in development land expansion of restricted development zones as time goes on, while it weakens in urbanized areas. This paper not only is a timely and systematic assessment of development land intensity of main functional zones, but also provides a policy reference for strategic optimization of main functional zones.
KEYWORDS: main functional zones; development land intensity; population size; land use per capita; China
♦RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN URBAN LAND EXPANSION AND POPULATION GROWTH: LONG-TERM TREND AND INFLUENCING FACTORS
Author：JIAO Limin; LI Jing; XU Gang
ABSTRACT: Urban land often grows faster than population, which leads to the low-density growth of cities. However, its macroscopic changing trend and its relationship with the stage of social and economic development are still unclear. It is of great significance for the decision-making of sustainable urban development to reveal the changing trend of urban population density from the macroscopic space-time scale. This study investigates urban development in typical developed countries since the Industrial Revolution and in China since the reform and opening up, and analyzes related economic development, industrial development, urbanization level, transportation development, and other factors. It is found that: ① Since the start of industrialization, urban population density in typical developed countries has increased first and then decreased, the inflection point has appeared when the urbanization rate is around 50～70%, the industrialization process has been completed, and the automobile industry has developed to a certain scale. ② Since the reform and opening up, the urban population density in China has increased first and then decreased, and the urban population density had decreased in the pre-industrial period. ③ Both in developed countries and in China, the urban population density firstly increased and then decreased, but in China, the urban population density decreased rapidly and the inflection point of urban population density appeared relatively early. Diversified needs for land use, the automobile-based transportation development, and other factors have driven the urban land expansion in China. Therefore, it is urgent to control the rapid city sprawl and to promote the sustainable urban development.
KEYWORDS: city sprawl; urbanization; urban population density; correlation analysis
♦THE INFLUENCE MECHANISM OF DYNAMIC VISION ON URBAN VISUAL CORRIDOR AND MODEL REGULATION
Author：PANG Feng; WANG Lisha; SUN Bo; DING Nan
ABSTRACT: Currently, China's urban space generally presents poor synergy, disorderly landscape sequence, and other uncontrollable urban phenomena. The lack of analysis on the dynamic visual corridor model leads to that the visual landscape control system fails to meet the needs of the urban multimodal transportation environment, and even falls into the dilemma of constructive destruction. As a result, it is urgent to explore the influence mechanism of dynamic vision perception on the visual corridor. The studies in the past ten years reveal that the dynamic vision function has a key role in regulating the urban landscape system concerning urban express traffic. Using the human-computer interaction technology for data acquisition, this paper obtains the gradient reduction rate parameters of tunnel vision and deduces the coordinated control indicators of the 3D cone spatial domain with elliptical cross section, the 2D domain with elliptical interface and the sphere-type landscape control hierarchy under dynamic conditions. Based on that, it develops a mathematical model of visual corridors, in order to reveal the essential factors causing the impact of dynamic vision on linear landscape visual space. Finally, it elucidates the mechanism of coordinated and symbiotic urban morphology and explores the strategies for harmonious development of urban blocks. It may provide a theoretical basis and technical support for urban policy making and control implementation.
KEYWORDS: visual targets; dynamic vision perception; the human-computer interaction technology; the gradient reduction rate; visual corridor
♦CONCEPT DEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICS IDENTIFICATION OF URBAN AND RURAL WATER-RELATED AFFAIRS HERITAGE
Author：ZHANG Yang；HE Yi
ABSTRACT:The research defines the urban and rural water-related affairs heritage as historical legacies during the process of raw water storage, water purification, water delivery, water supply, water saving, drainage, and sewage treatment in urban built environment, including equipment, facilities, and buildings directly related to water affairs, guiding materials for water supply construction, derivatives of water supplies activities, appendages of water supply engineering, the overall water supply system, etc. This paper takes the social cycle of water, rather than the natural cycle, as its research object, applies service oriented rather than production oriented principles, takes water rights, not limited to water quantity and water quality as the center, and focuses on affairs closely related to people's lives. At present, urban and rural water-related affairs heritages are basically included in the existing protection lists and systems such as water heritage, and a large number of elements outside the lists have not been identified. The systematic management of water-related affairs heritage has not yet begun, and the concept and experience of water construction at non-material perspective also need to be explored. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the basic issues such as its concept, characteristics, and value, so as to understand the idea of public health in the course of urban construction for the people.
KEYWORDS: water-related affairs heritage; water-related services; infrastructure; public health; urban and rural built environment
♦RESEARCH ON REFINED LOCATION ALLOCATION METHOD OF PUBLIC SPACE
Author：CAI Xindong; WANG Weiwei; ZHAO Weifeng; WANG Tianyi
ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes that the optimization of the public space system is actually a multi-objective optimization process of fairness, efficiency, ecology, and culture, and explores the digital generation method of public space location allocation. First of all, based on the theory of urban morphology, the urban space is divided into block space units, and based on the analysis of multi-source information data, the block spatial characteristics are described by four vectors: population distribution, land benefit, ecological environment, and cultural potential. Secondly, taking the center of the block unit as the demand point, a multi-objective location allocation model based on the genetic algorithm is established, and the optimal solution set of idealized public space location is obtained by a dynamic weighting method. Thirdly, by using the spatial network analysis method, compared with the actual urban public space, the design strategy is put forward from the aspects of spatial pattern, regeneration direction, development time sequence, and so on. Finally, taking Tiexi old urban area of Shenyang as an example, the method is proved to be scientific and effective.
KEYWORDS: public space pattern; block unit; genetic algorithm; location allocation
♦SPATIAL MATCHING BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF PUBLIC SERVICE FACILITIES: A CASE OF HUILONGGUAN-TIANTONGYUAN AREA IN BEIJING
Author：FENG Junming; LI Chi; SUN Yuexin; L Shuo; LI Yue
ABSTRACT: This paper uses Internet Word-of -Mouth (IWOM) data to quantify the service capacity of four types of market-driven public service facilities include catering, shopping, leisure-entertainment, and life-service, and develops a spatial supply-demand matching framework for urban public service facilities based on the Network Analysis and Minimum Cumulative Resistance model (NA-MCR0). The spatial matching of supply and demand for public service facilities are carried out through an empirical analysis with Huilongguan- Tiantongyuan (H&T) area in Beijing as an example. The results show that: (1) In terms of the distribution of supply-demand intensity, there are 1 to 2 high-intensity supply areas each on the east and west sides of the H&T area, while the spatial demand intensity distribution is more dispersed. (2) In terms of the comprehensive spatial supply-demand matching, the supply-demand matching degree and matching pattern of public facilities in H&T area show certain degree of spatial differentiation, which is mainly caused by the distribution pattern of over-concentrated facilities with high IWOM value and the negative influence of low suitability pedestrian spaces. (3) In terms of spatial matching of classified facilities, the other three types of facilities in H&T area differ significantly except the life-service facilities.
KEYWORDS:public service facilities; supply and demand; spatial matching;Internet Word-of-Mouth data; Minimum Cumulative Resistance model; Huilongguan-Tiantongyuan (H&T) area in Beijing
♦EVOLUTION AND CONFIGURATION OF LIFE SERVICE SPACE TOWARDS ONLINE-MERGE-OFFLINE: A CASE STUDY OF FRESH FOOD RETAIL
Author：ZHANG He; HE Jing; WANG Rui; CAO Shuyi
ABSTRACT: Facing the intelligent era of the internet of everything, this paper explores the interactive mechanism of OMO (online-merge-offline) model and concludes the evolution logic of physical space, which are of great significance to realize the accurate matching of supply and demand of life service resources. As a consumer-oriented service facility with high frequency of use and rich consumption scenes, fresh food retail is one of the core types of digital life circle. Based on the "intermediary" role of virtual and real space in resource carrying, the paper takes Beijing as an example to analyze the functional evolution mechanism of the disintermediation of offline space and the re-intermediation of online platform of fresh retail space to explore the location factors of differentiated scenes and the configuration system under the expansion of service scope. Specifically speaking, logistics efficiency, service experience, and the near end of the community are vital site selection factors of the pre-warehouse type, store-warehouse integrated type, and traditional type of fresh food retail space respectively. The high efficiency of online interconnection and the interactional complementarity of offline immersion are the key to the evolution of the spatial structure of life services, and also provide guidance for improving the supply efficiency and equity of resources.
KEYWORDS: OMO model; disintermediation; life service space; fresh food retail system; supply and demand matching
♦AN EXPLORATION ON THE COMPREHENSIVE URBAN DESIGN METHODS AT THE CITY LEVEL UNDER THE TERRITORIAL PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF NANCHANG
Author：LIU Lifei; HUANG Sitong; ZHOU Han
ABSTRACT: As a main part of the territorial planning system, urban design is an important support for the high-quality development of territorial space, and runs through the whole process of territorial planning, construction, and management. Comprehensive urban design is important basic research work of the territorial planning, and it is urgent to develop and improve new urban design methods in the new era according to new requirements. Fully meeting the whole-region and total-element management requirements of the territorial planning, this paper explores the technical methods of comprehensive urban design at the city/county level based on a study of the territorial planning compilation of Nanchang, and puts forward an implementation path of "shaping featured identity – optimizing spatial structure – improving the control system". Guided by the strategic consensus on the positioning of landscape characteristics of the city, emphasis is placed on strengthening the integration of ecological space, agricultural space, and urban and rural construction space from the perspectives of safety and quality, establishing a featured spatial pattern that harmonizes with the natural resources such as mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, and grasslands, and comprehensively supporting the construction of an overall territorial pattern and the delimitation of "three zones and three lines". A design management system of "zoning, classification, and grading" is further established, which takes the landscape zone as spatial scope, the element classification as guiding object, and the management hierarchy as control standard. Thus, the value transmission of the comprehensive design objectives and the implementation of the overall control requirements are realized, and an urban and rural landscape system with regional characteristics is built, which comprehensively improves the quality of the territorial space.
KEYWORDS: comprehensive urban design; city region; territorial planning
♦THE GREEN AND LOW-CARBON APPROACH TO THE HEIGHT FORM CONTROL OF MOUNTAINOUS COUNTY: A CASE STUDY ON SHANGTANG CENTRAL URBAN AREA OF YONGJIA COUNTY, ZHEJIANG PROVINCE
Author：YANG Jie; QIAO Jie; HONG Liangping
ABSTRACT: The green and low-carbon construction of counties, an important urban-rural habitat pattern, is an important area for implementing the double carbon strategy. Affected by the natural geographical environment and man-land relationship, mountainous counties are faced with the dual constraints of limited construction land and a fragile ecological environment. As a consequence, height form control is the key technical support for handling the contradiction between the spatial capacity of in-situ urbanization and the ecological safety pattern of mountains and rivers. Traditional height form control tends to prioritize the spatial clustering of economic growth, lacking the technical response to the inheritance of local landscape and the demand for green and low-carbon development. This paper conducts a case study on Shangtang central urban area in Yongjia County located in the mountainous area of southern Zhejiang Province. It develops a spatial order framework in which mountains and rivers are integrated based on summarizing the spatial logic between green and low-carbon construction and the height form control of mountainous counties, to meet the demand for spatial value enhancement by following the principle of subject-object mutual feedback and to develop space control approaches with the support of mountainous city overlook. Taking the mountainous city visual feedback as technical means, it puts forward a height form control indicator system guided by the goal of landscape integration, develops a digital model of overall height form control featuring subject-object mutual feedback, and establishes a two-dimensional control mechanism of "space height" and "control intensity". In terms of the overall urban design of mountainous counties, the green and low-carbon control and spatial technique transmission can be achieved through reshaping the overall spatial structure, enriching the visual landscape hierarchy, and optimizing the urban charm interface.
KEYWORDS: mountainous county; height form control; green and low-carbon development; visual system between mountains and cities; Yongjia Cou