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The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation was issued, and Experts of Urban Development Research Made In-Depth Interpretations

2022-08-06 | UPSC

Recently, National Development and Reform Commission issued The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation (hereinafter referred to as the "Plan"). 52 Articles in the plan involves new requirements and measures closely related to urban and rural residents, such as household registration reform, equalization of public services, housing, urban agglomerations and metropolitan areas, and rural revitalization.

How to interpret this important document, and how will these measures in the plan profoundly affect our lives?

To explore these issues, Sohu Urban Development Think Tank invites seven experts from different fields to give an in-depth interpretation.

Accelerate the urbanization of the agricultural transfer population… Improve the supporting policies for the urbanization of the agricultural transfer population. Improve the central and provincial financial incentive mechanism for the urbanization of the agricultural transfer population, and establish a work coordination mechanism for the departments of finance, development and reform, and public security. Financial support will be given to absorbing areas with a large number of agricultural transfer populations across provinces and cities.

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Ye Yumin, Executive Director of Urban Planning Society of China , Director of Academic Committee of School of Public Administration, Renmin University of China

The first task of the Plan is to speed up the urbanization of the agricultural transfer population, which is a consistent policy for new urbanization since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. This time the plan especially proposes the specific measures and policies to improve the supporting facilities for the urbanization of the agricultural transfer population in Article 12 .

In these supporting policies, there are some innovations, which aims at the overall main goal. In the main goal, there is an innovative formulation this year that urban basic public services cover all unsettled permanent residents.

Citizenization policies have always said that urban basic public services cover the permanent population, but this time it is written that basic public services cover all the unsettled permanent population, emphasizing all unsettled, which means that all non-registered permanent residents ,that is, new citizens, must be all covered by basic urban public services. This requirement is much stricter than what is usually said to cover the resident population.

Generally speaking, the coverage of the permanent resident population may be a small part of the population, and it is considered to be covered. This time, it is called all unsettled, that is, there is no omission, and none of them will fall. I think it is a very big progress.

In order to implement this goal, Article 12 of the supporting measures in the document also appear to be more advanced than before.

One of the progresses is to clearly state that we should establish and improve the reward system for the urbanization of the agricultural transfer population at the central and provincial levels, and establish a work coordination mechanism for the departments of finance, development and reform, and public security.

Financial department is in charge of money, development and reform department is in charge of projects, and public security department is in charge of household registration. All departments work together to ensure the realization of the goal of covering all the population with public services for new citizens. I think this is a great progress.

In addition, the compulsory education and affordable housing for the floating population is written into the national territorial space planning at all levels, which has never been done before, and this is also an innovation.

However, there is a big difficulty, that is, its target time is 2025. In order to achieve urban public services covering all non-registered permanent residents in 2025, there are no quantitative requirements in the supporting policies, so this goal may be very difficult to achieve.

Deepen the reform of the household registration system. Open up and relax the restrictions on household registration except for a few mega-cities, and implement the household registration system based on the permanent residence on a trial basis. Completely abolish the household registration restrictions in cities with a permanent population of less than 3 million in urban areas, and ensure that people from other places and local agricultural migrants settle in cities. All standards are treated equally.

Improve the points settlement policy for super-large cities with a permanent population of more than 5 million in urban areas, simplify the points items, ensure that the points of social insurance payment duration and residence duration account for the main proportion, and encourage the cancellation of the annual quota for settlement.

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Huang Zhengxue, Director and researcher of the National Territorial Economics Office of the Institute of National Territorial Development and Regional Economics, Academy of Macroeconomic Research of National Development and Reform Commission

The orderly promotion of the urbanization of the agricultural transfer population with stable employment and living in cities and towns is the primary task of the new-type urbanization with people at the center, and an important measure to reduce the urbanization rate of the permanent resident population and the urbanization rate of the registered population, and also to expand domestic demand. important means.

The Plan reiterates the goal of the reform of the household registration system and the urbanization mechanism for the agricultural transfer population proposed in the outline of the national 14th Five-Year Plan, and clearly establishes a mechanism, in which basic public services are linked to the permanent population and provided by the permanent residence.

However, there have been innovations in specific practices, such as exploring the implementation of the reform of electronic residence permits, exploring the issuance of electronic training vouchers for eligible migrant workers through social security cards, and supporting qualified regions to orderly promote residence permit holders in their permanent residence and living security, and treating both foreign and local populations equally in the process of urban management and comprehensive law enforcement. These fully reflects the continuity and inheritance of policies, and it plays an important role in promoting the transfer of rural population to cities and towns, and is of great help in releasing urbanization needs.

The document also makes some requirements for the relaxation of household registration in mega-cities, which is a positive signal. However, at present, it is still very difficult for mega-cities,, especially some first-tier cities, to significantly relax or even liberalize the household registration system, because it involves factors such as local financial affordability. In addition, some cities with a population of 3 to 5 million in urban areas also have hidden thresholds for settlement that cannot be ignored.

Gradually increase the income proportion of local land transfer for agriculture and rural areas.

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Lv Dewen, Professor ,School of Sociology of Wuhan University , researcher of Wuhan University China Rural Governance Research Center

This part mainly involves the question that where the money for rural revitalization comes from, which has been solved since the introduction of the entire rural revitalization strategy. It is also some basic principles that have been established before that a larger proportion of land transfer funds should be used for agriculture and rural areas.

Where does the money come from? From the perspective of the local government, the first thing to do in rural revitalization is to rely on central funds. It is currently the main source of funding for rural revitalization in every locality.

The second source of funds is financing, which is also very common through market-based means. It is to use local public assets to establish some financing platforms, such as urban investment companies, and then engage in rural revitalization.

The third, of course, depends on the local finances, including the land transfer fee. In fact, the finances of the most places are very limited, and the land transfer fee is mainly used to maintain some daily operations of the local government, and it’s hardly to play a role for its use in the agricultural and rural areas, according to my own research.

First of all, in a place, especially in rural areas, its land transfer fee is relatively limited, and the finance is relatively limited. The land transfer fee is used in many places. If it is used for rural revitalization, other places, such as civil servants , teachers' wages will be affected.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs estimates that to achieve the goal of the five-year plan for the rural revitalization strategy, at least 7 trillion yuan must be invested, which is a particularly large scale.

At the same time, there are some unrealistic ideas in many places, that is to imagine rural revitalization construction as a very high level of rural revitalization, which is unrealistic and financially unbearable.

If the construction standard is not so high , it can basically be done based on the existing development level and financial foundation, and a larger proportion of the land transfer fee can be used to support it. In addition, it will take longer time and it can be done.

According to the principle of marketization, under the premise of compliance with laws and regulations and controllable risks, rural credit cooperatives, rural commercial banks and rural banks will be promoted to expand credit issuance.

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Lv Dewen, Professor ,School of Sociology of Wuhan University , researcher of Wuhan University China Rural Governance Research Center

This involves encouraging local financial institutions to lend to farmers, and I think this requires a detailed analysis of specific issues.

Judging from my current research, ordinary farmers in most places have no shortage of borrowing channels. The lending channels are now very smooth, and of course it is a good thing to be further smooth now. In addition, farmers generally need a small amount of credit. If there is more, he will not be able to afford it, and there will not be so much credit.

So I think that the entire financial services are already relatively compatible with the development of farmers, and there is no need for much expansion.

Instead, there is a point to be vigilant about now, that is, many entities are now consciously or unintentionally expanding the convenience of finance to mobilize the overdraft behavior of peasant families. This requires vigilance.

In addition, the village banks mentioned in the document have recently attracted a lot of attention, and some people worry that this matter will set back the rural financial reform. What I want to say is that the current hot events and the rural credit expansion mentioned in the document are two different things. The rural credit in the document refers to the traditional and financially beneficial businesses, which are basically offline, and its entire system is relatively standardized.

The Henan Village Bank incident was mainly because of its online business problems, not because of problems with its business as a village bank serving ordinary farmers. The Henan village bank incident is actually conducive to the country's positioning and calibration of village banks, which is to serve agriculture, farmers and rural areas and rural revitalization. I don't think it's necessarily a bad thing.

Carry out comprehensive land consolidation in the whole region, rationally promote the consolidation of agricultural land and construction land, resolutely curb the non-agriculturalization of cultivated land, and strictly control the non-grainization transformation. It is strictly forbidden to arbitrarily cancel or merge villages into large communities, and carry out demolition and construction against the wishes of farmers .

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Lv Dewen, Professor ,School of Sociology of Wuhan University , researcher of Wuhan University China Rural Governance Research Center

There are some historical reasons for the non-agriculturalization of agricultural land, and I personally feel that the objective historical reasons for this should be respected. For example, some places have developed township and village enterprises for a long time, or encouraged farmers to engage in industrial construction on the land during a certain historical period. Because land management was not so strict at that time, and some were allowed or even encouraged.

For some new situations, in the past ten years, agricultural production has undergone great changes. And the agricultural production system was dominated by small farmers, but now the proportion is very low, and a large part of it relies on large agricultural households and cooperatives. and even some scale operations.

Large-scale management has led to the abandonment of those places with inconvenient land farming conditions and non-grainization. Now if we implement one-size-fits-all because of remediation, the actual locality will face a very big dilemma.

Faced with this problem, on the one hand, we must respect farmers' production and management rights and contract management rights, and on the other hand, we must rectify non-grainization. There are actually some conflicts between these two aspects.

For example, the cultivation of double-cropping rice is now being promoted, but farmers may be unwilling to plant it because of low income or inconvenient work, and it is impossible for the government to take it back and plant it by itself. However, some land is indeed unsuitable for cultivation. If it is to be cultivated, the land must be comprehensively rehabilitated. In this case, the state's land and water resources departments can enter.

Therefore, in the face of these problems, it is necessary to adapt measures to local conditions and analyze specific problems in detail.

As for the prohibition of village mergers and acquisitions, this has been written into the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Promotion of Rural Revitalization. The document emphasizes this in a sense to prevent the Great Leap Forward of rural revitalization. In the direction of rural revitalization, what should be done now is to maintain the bottom line, stabilize the order, and leave the retreat. This is the most critical. Strict control of "non-grain" is also a manifestation of leaving the retreat.

Establish a linkage mechanism between the housing and land, implement a prudent management system for real estate finance, support reasonable self-occupation demand, and curb investment speculative demand.

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Kuang Weida, Director of Urban and Real Estate Research Center, National Institute of Development and Strategy, Renmin University of China, Professor of Business School.

Why do we need to establish a linkage mechanism between housing and land? This is mainly to support the demand for self-occupation and curb speculative demand, which means that the use of our land must be related to housing.

At present, China's housing and land linkage mechanism has shown unhealthy linkages in some regions. Usually, the proportion of industrial land is relatively high, and the proportion of residential land and commercial land is relatively low.

Especially in some hot cities, the relationship between supply and demand of housing is relatively prominent, so in this case, to the extent possible, land planning and land arrangements should be tilted towards housing as much as possible, so that residential land can meet the needs of housing as much as possible. Demand, especially reasonable self-occupation demand, should reduce speculative or idle land demand.

On the other hand, land supply must also be guaranteed by multiple subjects and multiple channels. Not only the state-owned land in the city can be used to ensure the reasonable demand for self-occupied housing, but also the collective land can be used for the reasonable self-occupied demand. Especially in the use of insured rental land of rural collective land, it can also be transferred. The linkage between housing and rural collective land, and the linkage between housing and idle land can be established.

At present, a lot of land has been idle for a long time, and some unused land, such as abandoned industrial land and commercial land, can be converted into construction land, and the land use can be re-planned. At the same time, for some abandoned land, it can meet the needs of housing construction through land consolidation. In this way, a benign linkage mechanism between housing and land can be established.

Optimize the allocation of administrative resources and the setting of zoning… Improve the guarantee mechanism for street funds, promote the allocation of resources to the streets, and delegate more services that face the masses to the streets in accordance with the law.

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Sun Bindong, Professor, School of Urban and Regional Sciences, East China Normal University, Director of China Administrative Division Research Center

The nature of administrative divisions, as a resource, has once again been valued by the government. Because it has an important impact on social and economic development and urbanization, optimizing the allocation of administrative resources and zoning has been listed as an important task in the national 14th Five-Year Plan.

The inclination to the street reflects the need to strengthen grass-roots construction in current urban governance in my country. Streets and neighborhood committees are the basic units of urban governance and play an indispensable role in the practice of urban governance, which is particularly evident in the process of epidemic prevention. In this process, the role of the streets sometimes cannot be effectively played, so various resident volunteer organizations in the neighborhood committees have emerged, which reflects the need to strengthen the street construction.

Strictly control the dismantling of counties to build into cities or changing into districts, and promote structural optimization and appropriate scale adjustment of municipal districts.

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Sun Bindong, Professor, School of Urban and Regional Sciences, East China Normal University, Director of China Administrative Division Research Center

This is in the same vein as this year's government work report and the spirit of the Central Committee for Comprehensively Deepening Reform.

First of all, as a resource, administrative divisions can indeed play an important role in development, but at the same time, they are also part of the political structure of national governance and require certain stability. Frequent adjustment of administrative divisions is not desirable.

To solve some problems of administrative barriers, it is better to build an inter-regional coordination mechanism instead of just zoning adjustment. Strengthening the carrying capacity of central cities also requires coordinated development among regions. This also reflects the spirit of the Central Committee for Comprehensively Deepening Reform., that is, it is necessary to adhere to the overall stability of administrative divisions, and to ensure that it is not necessary to adjust, or to change if the timing and conditions are immature.

Secondly, the removal of counties into cities and districts must meet certain conditions and be conducive to high-quality development. When the urban level of the county is high enough to truly integrate with the central city, and can further promote the development of the entire region, it is understandable to remove the county and build a city into a district. However, we have also seen in practice that some districts set up after the county was withdrawn did not achieve the expected purpose.

The purpose of removing counties and setting up districts in many central cities is to expand their total scale, which is not fully in line with the requirements of high-quality development, and will even lead to a new round of low-level expansion, resulting in a huge disparity between cities. Injustice and competition will also weaken the driving effect on rural areas and affect rural revitalization. In the content of the 14th Five-Year Plan of various places in the early stage, the impulse to withdraw counties and set up districts is very strong, and it is timely for the state to strictly control.

Thirdly, strict control does not mean prohibition. I personally understand that it is still possible for counties that really meet the conditions to achieve orderly decommissioning of counties and building cities into districts. This requires in-depth scientific demonstration of the removal of counties into districts, and this is where the next step needs to be strengthened.

Improve the coordinated development mechanism of urban agglomerations and metropolitan areas. Explore the appropriate separation of economic management authority from the scope of administrative areas within urban agglomerations and metropolitan areas, and establish a cross-administrative area benefit-sharing and cost-sharing mechanism.

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Fang Chuanglin Distinguished Researcher of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Academician of International Eurasian Academy of Sciences

The mechanism is the key problem in the development of urban agglomerations. If the problem of mechanism is solved and the mechanism between provinces and cities is optimized, then they can truly realize mutual cooperation and shared interests.

In the past, the coordinated development mechanism, the integrated development mechanism, and the co-urbanization mechanism were all mentioned, but they were all affected by administrative barriers. Everyone is talking about the economy of the administrative region, not the regional economy, or the economy of the urban agglomeration. However, this time the implementation plan has explained this issue very thoroughly, and the intensity of various measures has been significantly increased.

For example, I talked about the park just now. For example, a park built in Wuxi. Although it was built in Wuxi, it is a cooperation project in the integration of the Yangtze River Delta. . Now if it is a park jointly built by Wuxi, Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou, the GDP and tax revenue can be counted to the four cities according to the proportions agreed in advance.

Of course, there must be some resistance to realization, because many cooperative projects may occupy a place's land, water resources and infrastructure, etc. In terms of the sharing mechanism in the early negotiation, the sharing ratio should be handled well.

In addition, the issue of compensation mechanism is also mentioned here. Some places cannot participate in joint construction because they are in nature reserves or ecological functional areas, but they provide ecological products. In turn, since it provides ecological products and protects the blue sky and clear water in other places, it should take part in the share.

For example, in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, Zhangjiakou protects the safety of water resources and ecological environment in the capital. When it is divided into different places, it can also be divided into the cost of protecting Beijing's water security and ecological environment. Sacrifice, Beijing will divide a part to Zhangjiakou in the process of dividing the calculation.

Promote the transformation of development methods in mega-megacities…enhance the vitality of small cities.

——The 14th Five-Year Plan of New Urbanization Implementation

Zeng Gang, Dean and Tenured Professor of Urban Development Research Institute of East China Normal University

The plan puts forward guiding opinions on the development of super-large cities and small cities, requiring super-large cities to lose weight and keep fit, orderly relieve the functions of general manufacturing, regional logistics, and professional markets in the central city, and enhance global resource allocation, scientific and technological innovation sources, High-end industry leading function.

It is required to speed up the development of small cities with good factors, solid industrial foundation and great development potential, strictly control the increase of cities with population loss, and focus on revitalizing the stock. It is hoped that this will solve the existing problems of big cities and underdevelopment of small cities in China.

However, how to realize the matching between the measures and goals, solve the contradiction between the positioning of higher functions in super-large cities, gradually relax the control of population settlement, increase the attractiveness of the population, and control the goal of population expansion in super-large cities, and solve the problems of lower in small cities, the convergence of general production capacity and basic public service facilities, the relatively weak attraction to the population and the goal of accelerating the development of small cities all need to be further explored.

Therefore, it is suggested that all localities should focus on the optimization goal of urban scale and structure, and use the thinking of reform and innovation to further formulate the effective action plans according to local conditions with its own characteristics, which can serve the implementation of the national strategic deployment of our country's new urbanization.

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Translated by Yue Wang