♦ REVIEW AND PROSPECT OF URBAN PLANNING IN THE PAST 70 YEARS
ABSTRACT: At the beginning of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, urban planning majors started from scratch and made important achievements. Since the reform and opening up, large-scale urbanization has advanced rapidly, and great achievements have been made in urban and rural construction. With the deepening of the understanding of the complexity and comprehensiveness of urban planning, the Sciences of Human Settlements has emerged. In recent years, socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, and the construction of urban and rural human settlements has received unprecedented attention. More efforts should be made to vigorously and consciously develop the Sciences of Human Settlements and provide scientific support for the construction of better human settlements, so as to promote the socialist modernization and the national socio-economic development.
KEYWORDS: urban planning; seventy years; Sciences of Human Settlements; people-oriented
♦ HOLLOWNESS VS. MULTI-CORE, SERVICE VS. GOVERNANCE
ABSTRACT: In the thirty years from 1949 to 1979 before China’s reform and opening up, urban planning focused on implementation while planning theory received less attention. Since the 1980s, large-scale urban development has urgently required the guidance of planning theory. Building China’s own planning theory has become a consensus in the Chinese planning circle. The article points out that the current planning theory research shows more of a multi-core orientation rather than “hollowness”， reflecting the coexistence of different development stages of Chinese cities, thus requiring different theoretical guidance. “City Governance” is an important topic at present. The article proposes that the fundamental purpose of governance is to serve people.
KEYWORDS: Chinese city; planning theory; city governance
♦ A HUMAN-CENTERED PLANNING PARADIGM
ABSTRACT: Humans seek economic, social, and ecological opportunities. Such opportunities nearly always involve spatial connections within a human settlement. Human-centered planning recognizes the innate tendency for humans （Homo-urbanicus） to strive for a balance between self-preservation and mutual-preservation, and uses it as a guiding principle to organize the use and allocation of urban land and space in order to bring about the highest balance.The focus of planning is to match “the human”and “the settlement” in a “human settlement”。
KEYWORDS: planning paradigm; “Homo-urbanicus”； human-centered; spatial connection
♦ THE GREAT SEVENTY YEARS: URBAN PLANNING EVOLUTION IN CHINA FROM A CAPITAL-MONETARY PERSPECTIVE
ABSTRACT: It is the “value” or “objective function” of urban planning that determines our choice of the theoretical system of urban planning. What is a “good” plan or what is a “bad” plan, does not depend on the planning itself, but on the “objective function” of the planning. In the past 70 years, the objective of urban planning has always been a function of capital-monetary conditions and their generative patterns in China. China’s capital-monetary supply has experienced a development process from shortage, abundance, to surplus. According to this process, we can roughly divide the past 70 years of urban planning into three phases, which can thus provide a macro historical perspective to explain the great 70 years of China’s urbanization.
KEYWORDS: planning history; stage of growth; capital and money
♦ STATE GOVERNANCE, SPATIAL PLANNING, AND “CENTRAL - LOCAL ” COLLABORATION: WITH DISCUSSIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND TREND OF THE CENTRAL-LOCAL GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIP IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE SPATIAL PLANNING SYSTEM
Author:LIN Jian; ZHAO Ye
ABSTRACT: The reconstruction of the spatial planning system in the new era should be based on the perspective of state governance, aim at realizing the modernization of the spatial governance system and governance capacity, and establish a spatial planning system following the guiding principles of the central government, community governance, and people-centered. Among them, straightening out the responsibility of the central and local governments and promoting the coordination are key to achieving the above objectives. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the central-local government relationship during the evolution of China’s spatial planning system have gone through five stages: the planned economy period, after the decentralization reform, after the tax-sharing reform, the period of regulation under the concept of sustainable development, and the period of ecological civilization system reform. The development and reform of the spatial planning system at each stage is closely related to the evolution of the state governance system and the transformation of the central-local government relationship. In the new era, the central-local government relationship in China’s spatial planning system will present new synergy trends. The first one is equal rights and responsibilities: responsibility division of the central and local governments and market-oriented reform will be carried out simultaneously, and a clear institutionalized decentralization model will be established. The second one is that each department performs its duties: the central government stresses strategic guidance, bottom line control, and partial focus, and the local government focuses on elements allocation, quality improvement, and private rights coordination. The third one is collaborative and co-governance: spatial planning with region-element coordination as the guidance and natural resource management as the support will become an important experimental field for improving the central-local government relationship.
KEYWORDS: state governance; spatial governance; central-local government relationship; evolution; trend
♦ PRACTICE, EXPLORATION, AND REFLECTIONS OF REGIONAL PLANNING IN JIANGSU
Author:ZHANG Quan; ZOU Jun; WANG Feng
ABSTRACT: Centered on the Urban System Planning of Jiangsu Province （2001-2020） and its follow-up work, this paper reviews the historical background, opportunities and challenges, coping strategies, and implementation effects of Jiangsu’s regional planning practice at the end of the 20th century. Taking this as reference, the paper discusses the principles that should be paid attention to in the development of regional planning in China. The paper holds that the planning work should closely follow the socio-economic development requirements, focus on the interests of the people, combine market orientation with policy orientation, and make adjustment and improvement in a timely manner. Regional planning is more important in the transitional period of development and should play a better role of macro-economic control. Regional planning is an important tool for the Party and the government to govern the country, so it is necessary to strengthen its attribute as a public policy, grasp major issues, and make strategic decisions. Regional planning involves a wide range of issues and has rich connotations and complex relationships, so importance should be attached to adopting scientific measures and strengthening scientific decision-making.
KEYWORDS: regional; planning; Jiangsu
♦ DRAWING ON SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCE OF MULTIPLE PLANS, PROVIDING COMFORTABLE LIVES FOR THE PEOPLE: REFLECTIONS ON PLANNING PRACTICE AND EXPLORATIONS
ABSTRACT: Urban planning is in the transition period of management transformation. This article combined many years of practices and explorations and pointed out that: planning should find itself the right position in social development, coordinate space among land use of multiple special planning for the development of many industries according to desires in terms of the future production, living, and ecological development, as well as reasonably planning, guiding, and controlling space in the planning range, in order to truly form a joint force and exert comprehensive effect, and so that people can live a comfortable and healthy life through better planning and construction.
KEYWORDS: planning; positioning; coordination; People-oriented
♦ SOCIAL EFFECT OF CHINA’S URBANIZATION AND THE PLANNING RESPONSE TO THE MIDDLE AND LATE STAGE OF URBANIZATION
Author: LI Zhigang; CHEN Hongsheng
ABSTRACT: During the period of the 14th Five Year Plan, China enters the new stage of urbanization development - the middle and late urbanization （MLU）， when the macro-development conditions and medium-micro development environment have undergone major changes, especially in terms of the instability of population urbanization due to the changing economic development speed. Accordingly, we should grasp the opportunity, to systematically work on the development challenges and planning response for MLU, improve the quality of population urbanization, maintain the vitality of sustainable social development, and achieve a transition from growth to development. Specifically, against the context of profound changes of China’s development mode, it is important to keep the kinetic energy of population urbanization as soon as possible, and keep strengthening the social development effect of urbanization when sustain social mobility. At the same time, we must seize the development opportunities of medium and high-speed growth, solve the remaining problems of population urbanization, and explore new ways to promote high-quality population urbanization. During the process of sustained urbanization, we must transcend the urban-rural duality, establish a modern space unity from city to village, stabilize the urban development path, and build a rural area with stronger support for urbanization with better efficiency. In terms of population governance, we should explore governance strategies or techniques to promote social mobility, complete the urbanization task of “stock-based” population, respond more effectively to the living and development need of general people. In terms of urban space, it is encouraged to construct a multi-level population urbanization carrier marked by the system of “urban cluster-metropolitan area-general city-county town and village” and create more equitable development space.
KEYWORDS: population urbanization; social effects; middle and late stage of urbanization; growth; development
♦ SPATIAL STRUCTURE AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF CHINESE CITY CLUSTERS: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR SPATIAL PLANNING OF CITY CLUSTERS
Author:SUN Bindong; GUO Rui; CHEN Yu
ABSTRACT: City clusters have become the main spatial support for further promotion of China's new urbanization. Clarifying which spatial structure is more conducive to improve the economic performance is helpful for providing decision-making basis for spatial planning of city clusters, particularly during the 14th Five-Year Plan period. Based on the global population database of Landscan and the global land use data from ESA, this paper identifies urban entities and measures the spatial structure of city clusters from a monocentric-polycentric perspective. The fixed-effect model and instrumental variable method are used to test the effect of spatial structure on GDP per labor force and growth rate of GDP per labor force. The results show that polycentric spatial structure is associated with better economic performance of city clusters. Based on enhancing the radiation and driving role of the primate city, the spatial planning of city clusters should promote the overall balanced distribution of economic factors, aiming at a coordinated, rational, and orderly spatial structure system.
KEYWORDS: spatial structure; economic performance; city cluster; polycentricity; spatial planning
♦ URBAN LONG-TERM STRATEGIC PLANNING IN THE ERA OF KNOWLEDGE INNOVATION: A CASE STUDY ON HANGZHOU 2050
Author:ZHENG Degao; SUN Juan; MA Xuan; CHEN Yang
ABSTRACT: Under the background of knowledge-innovation era, the driving force and mode of urban development have undergone profound changes. How to achieve innovation-driven and high-quality development relying on knowledge and talent has become an important topic. Accordingly, the core framework of urban long-term strategic planning in the era of knowledge innovation is put forward based on the study of the relationship between theoretical cognition of knowledge-innovation era and urban spatial development strategies. Combining with the practice of Hangzhou 2050, it is pointed out that the driving force of urban development, spatial value, regional coordination, and global network are the key points of the new round of urban development strategy. On this basis, it hence proposes the development strategies for Hangzhou in terms of innovation city, charming city, alliance city, and platform city.
KEYWORDS: knowledge-innovation era; long-term strategic planning; innovation city; charming city; alliance city; platform city
♦ LAND REFORM, HOUSING GUARANTEE, AND TRANSITION OF URBAN-RURAL DEVELOPMENT: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR DEVELOPING RENTAL HOUSING IN COLLECTIVE LAND
Author:TIAN Li; TAO Ran
ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the impacts of urban-rural dual land system of China on housing market and urban-rural spatial disparity. We propose an integrated framework of collective land reform and inclusive urbanization development by allowing rental housing development on collective land in urban villages. Such a policy reform cannot only provide affordable housing to a large population of migrants and new college graduates who cannot afford commodity housing in cities, but also contribute to urban renewal and “people-oriented urbanization” in major Chinese cities.
KEYWORDS: land system reform; collective land; housing guarantee system; rental housing; urban-rural spatial development
♦ REFLECTIONS ON TASK ORIENTED SPATIAL PLANNING: ANALYSIS ON THE THEORY AND PATH FOR THE REALIZATION OF ECOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION
Author:TAN Zongbo; GONG Zilu
ABSTRACT: According to the Guidance of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the State Council on Establishing the Spatial Planning System and Supervising Its Implementation, it has clarified the basic framework of spatial planning. This symbolizes the task priority of China’s planning work shifting from the problem-oriented “multi-plan integration” to the establishment of task-oriented spatial planning system. In order to reach the goal of constructing ecological civilization, this system contains two major directions. The first one is to conserve and restore multi-ecological elements in the natural ecological system. The other direction is to properly cope with the construction and management of city, town, and village, as they are the key to the realization of ecological civilization. During this process, city level and town level planning will become the center of the whole planning system. By analyzing the theory and path to realize ecological civilization, this article discusses the spatial representation of ecological civilization, the tasks of spatial planning during the actualization of ecological civilization, and the corresponding planning techniques that should be applied.
KEYWORD: spatial planning system; spatial planning; ecological civilization; city-town-village; “multi-plan integration”
♦ EFFECTIVENESS OF GOVERNMENT-LED URBAN AGGLOMERATION INTEGRATION: A CASE STUDY OF CHANGSHA-ZHUZHOU-XIANGTAN URBAN AGGLOMERATION
ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the development process of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan （Chang-Zhu-Tan） Urban Agglomeration and analyzes the changes of the government’s focus during the integration progress. The analysis is conducted from the three aspects of overall economic strength, economic and population growth and spatial distribution features, and the functional relations of the three cities. The study finds out that the government-led mode has made up for the negative externality of market failure in regional environmental pollution control and ecological protection. However, in terms of the synergy of industry functions, Changsha plays a leading role and only maintains a high degree of correlation with Zhuzhou. There is a preliminary value-added hierarchy among the three cities, yet it fails to reach an expected interlocking network. Consequently, the paper proposes that over-emphasizing the balanced development of the three cities may lead to the ignorance of the role of the market in resource allocation, resulting in the fact that the three cities compete for limited resources, thereby reducing the overall strength of the urban agglomeration. It is argued that Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration should respect the market rules, while focusing on the equality of opportunities other than balancing resource distribution, in order to reach a greater synergetic competitiveness in the future.
KEYWORDS: Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration; integration effectiveness; synergetic competitiveness; value-added hierarchy; interlocking network; equality of opportunities
♦ COUPLING CELLULAR AUTOMATA WITH THE PLANNING THEORY OF MAJOR FUNCTION ZONE FOR SIMULATING URBAN GROWTH
Author:MA Shifa; AI Bin; NIAN Peihao
ABSTRACT: Cellular automata （CA） is widely used for the simulation of urban sprawling. Traditional CA models like logistic regression-based CA （LRCA） mainly aim to discover the transitional rules according to historical variation trend, but the effect of spatial planning is usually ignored. At present, multi-plan integration has been popularized in China and the policy of major function zone planning for spatial regulation will bring about great influence on land use exploitation significantly. Therefore, the planning theory of major function zone is coupled into the driving mechanism of the future urban growth in this paper. The urban sprawling information is first discriminated among different function zones, i.e., prioritized area, primary area, restrictive area, and forbidden area. Based on the framework of geo-simulation, a multi-scale synergistic cellular automata （MSCA） model is proposed in line with the following rules: （1） the balance between supply and demand for land use is considered to control the urban growth; （2） the spatial development policy is zoned to guide the simulation; and （3） CA model is used to simulate the urban expansion considering the completion between spatial planning policy and historical trend dynamically. To validate the performance of the model, Guangzhou City, located in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area of China, is selected as the case study area. The scenario of urban growth in the period 2005-2035 is simulated with the MSCA model. And the classification of remote sensing images collected in 2015 is used to test the efficiency of the MSCA model quantitatively. With the quantitative and qualitative analysis, it has been proven that MSCA performs better than LRCA for the simulation of long period urban sprawling, and the overall expansion trend derived from MSCA will be more in accordance with the urban strategic planning. Results demonstrate that the principle of spatial planning is important to improve the cellular automata models for simulating the urban growth.
KEYWORDS: cellular automata; major function zone; urbanization; urban planning; land use planning
♦ CARBON EMISSION ASSESSMENT OF REGULATORY PLANNING
Author: GUO Hongxu; XIAO Rongbo; LI Xiaohui; LIANG Haoyan; ZHOU Jian
ABSTRACT: In this paper, an assessment model of carbon emission of regulatory planning （RP） was built based on the relationship between RP and carbon emission, and then a typical RP case of Guangzhou was applied for test. The results are as follows. （1） According to the characteristics of energy consumption and carbon emission in city, the design of RP will affect the carbon emission of industry, building, and transportation, and also the green land carbon sink. （2） The key regulatory indexes of RP that affect carbon emission include land area, land usage, plot ratio, building density, land use compatibility, population density, green space ratio, public transit infrastructure configuration, etc. （3） The assessment model of carbon emission of RP was constructed based on the analysis of （1） and （2）， and the model was tested by a typical RP case of Guangzhou. The test results show that the model can assess the carbon emission and reduction potential of each section of RP, and the emission reduction potential of reduction measures can also be estimated.
KEYWORDS: regulatory planning; carbon emission; assessment model
♦ MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PATTERN MECHANISM OF URBAN SHADOW AREA: A CASE STUDY OF SHANGHAI’S “HUMAN-LAND-INDUSTRY” FROM A MULTI-SOURCE BIG DATA PERSPECTIVE
Author:YANG Junyan; MA Ben
ABSTRACT: The unbalanced development of urban space leads to the phenomenon of shadow area. This phenomenon includes the change of social spatial form, population migration, the inevitability of service market competition in urban geography projection, and reveals the regularity of morphological characteristics, spatial pattern and internal mechanism. Firstly, the paper tries to define the boundary of shadow area based on the multimedia data, such as three-dimensional building neighborhood, the crowd mobile phone signaling, and the POI data. Taking Shanghai as the sample, the paper tries to explain the characters in shadow area, and analyze its relationship with the land value and the spatial form layout on the basis of spatial form and the structure of the land and the change of the population. At last, this paper aims to explore the deep-seated laws and the composite mechanism the of agglomeration and diffusion effect, and clarify the formation and evolution mechanism of urban shadow areas.
KEYWORDS: shadow area; urban form; multi-source big data; urban design
♦ CHARACTERS OF FUNCTIONAL LINKAGE OF URBAN SPATIAL STRUCTURE: A CASE STUDY OF SHANGHAI CENTRAL CITY
Author:DING Liang; SONG Xiaodong; NIU Xinyi
ABSTRACT: According to the theory of spatial structure, spatial structure consists of spatial pattern and functional linkage. However, traditional spatial structure studies focus more on the spatial pattern of city elements than their functional linkages. Based on the jobs-housing and recreation-housing relationship obtained from mobile phone singling data in Shanghai Central City, this paper analyzes the characters of functional linkage using social network analysis method from the two aspects of attraction per unit area and closeness of functional relationship. It is found that from the perspective of functional linkage, Shanghai Central City has a “mono-centric and sector structure”。 The attraction in the central area for jobs and recreational activities is stronger than that in the periphery areas. Residents living in the periphery areas are closely connected with the central area by several sectors that coupled with radiating subway lines. Administrative division, Huangpu River, and Suzhou River affect the boundary of sector structure due to restricting the scope of residents' activities. This structure has much difference with the traditional understanding of “multi-centric and the three-ring structure of inner-ring, middle-ring, and outer-ring” and the ring form social spatial structure. It can be concluded that under the appearance of ring structure, employment and recreation activities are strongly attracted by the central area. Residents of different socio-economic strata in different ring structures, but their living, working, and recreation are actually interrelated without any special separation. Based on functional linkage, this paper supplements some contents proposed in the theory of urban spatial structure but not verified yet. Therefore, this study may help understand spatial structure by analyzing the functional linkage.
KEYWORDS: urban spatial structure; functional linkage; mono-centric; sector structure; Shanghai Central City