City Planning Review

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City Planning Review(2019.8)

2019-09-01

♦  Simplification

Author:SHI Nan

♦  A DISCUSSION ON URBAN PLANNING IN SPATIAL PLANNING SYSTEM

Author:WU Tinghai

ABSTRACT: The top-level design relating to the unification of the planning system and the spatial planning system has been completed. In the current and a long future time, it is necessary to further deepen the reform of the planning system and clarify the status and role of urban planning in the spatial planning system. It is suggested in the paper that the unique advantages of urban planning in the supply of spatial products should be brought into play in the spatial planning on prefectural and county levels. Urban master plans should play the role of leading and controlling at the macroscopic level, and urban detailed plans should play the role of managing and controlling at the bottom level, in order to integrate urban planning into the spatial planning system and provide planning support for leading cities’ high-quality development. Accordingly, it is necessary to strengthen research on and support for medium- and long-term development planning, and provide strategic guidance for the formulation and implementation of urban plans in the spatial planning system. Furthermore, it is essential to develop urban and rural planning discipline to meet the requirements of the spatial planning system.

KEYWORDS: spatial planning; urban planning; planning system; planning education

♦  BEYOND GROWTH: INNOVATION OF SPATIAL PLANNING TO ADDRESS INNOVATIVE ECONOMY

Author:ZHANG Jingxiang; HE Heming

ABSTRACT: Innovation is an essential driving force to promote the high-quality economic development, and a core to maintain the competitiveness of a country or a city. Due to the huge difference between the traditional growth model and the innovative economy, basic logics of spatial use and spatial planning should be reconstructed in the innovative economy. Based on the spatial characteristics of innovative economic elements, this paper attempts to build an adaptive relationship between innovative economy and spatial planning. The paper analyzes the spatial characteristics of innovative enterprises, innovation networks, and creative people. From the perspectives of spatial control, spatial organization, and spatial construction, the paper explores planning thinking innovations that go beyond growth. Then the paper puts forward three key points of spatial planning to address innovative economy: activating innovation space by resilient control, linking innovation clusters through innovation network, and gathering creative people with creative life. The construction of the spatial planning system should pay attention to the positive adaptation to innovative economy: emphasizing the unity between innovative development and ecological civilization in terms of governance objective, and stressing the integration between the will of the state and the wisdom of the local in terms of governance approach, so as to promote the high-quality development of the country by the systematic innovation of spatial planning.

KEYWORDS: innovative economy; spatial characteristic; spatial planning innovation; beyond growth

♦  RESPONSE OF THE 14TH FIVE-YEAR PLAN TO NEW-TYPE GLOBALIZATION: A PERSPECTIVE FROM THE COORDINATION BETWEEN GLOBAL ECOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION AND THE “BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE”

Author:WANG Xingping; LI Yingcheng

ABSTRACT: The “14th Five-Year Plan” period is a new era characterized by the coordination between new-type urbanization led by ecological civilization and new-type globalization promoted by the “Belt and Road Initiative”。 It is also a key period to practice the concept of the “community with a shared future for mankind”。 Therefore, it is necessary to make the “14th Five-Year Plan” with a new height and breadth. This paper systematically reviews the relevant studies on China’s Five-Year Plans and changes in the themes of the Five-Year Plans at the country and provincial levels. More importantly, it pays particular attention to the content of “internationalization” contained in the Five-Year Plans. From the perspective of global ecology and production balance, the paper analyzes the necessity for China to transform from a single “world factory” to the lead of global production system. Furthermore, in light of the future trend of global order and system reconstruction, it analyzes the new trend of internationalization planning in the “14th Five-Year Plan”。 Finally, it puts forward the six concepts and five key contents for the internationalization planning in the “14th Five-Year Plan”, which are expected to provide some suggestions for the synergy of ecological civilization and the “Belt and Road Initiative” from a global perspective.

KEYWORDS: ecological civilization; globalization; the Belt and Road Initiative; Five-Year Plan; plan

♦  SMART URBAN PLANNING UNDER THE FRAMEWORK OF DATA AUGMENTED DESIGN

Author:LONG Ying; ZHANG Enjia

ABSTRACT: Under the background of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, newly emerging technologies produce a profound impact on urban life and urban space. As a result, urban planning at the new era will also face transformation. Under the framework of Data Augmented Design, this paper proposes the process and three primary characteristics of smart urban planning. Meanwhile, this paper emphasizes five focuses for urban planning and design in the coming 14th Five-Year Plan: First, increase the research and layout of ICT infrastructure, and strengthen the construction of urban perception system; second, understand the change of the needs and behavior of citizens in the new era, and promote the in-depth study of environmental behavior; third, study the impact of emerging technologies on urban space, and explore the future transformation of urban space; fourth, promote the application of Data Augmented Design in traditional planning, and search for innovative perspective and methods for future planning and design; finally, pay more attention to the human-scale research and design, and construct more human-centered public space.

KEYWORDS: Da t a Au gme n t e d De s i g n ; emerging technology; smart urban planning; ICT infrastructure; human-scale

♦  NEW SUPPLY SYSTEM AND PATTERN OF COMMUNITY PUBLIC SERVICE FACILITIES IN METROPOLITAN AREA: SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION BASED ON 3-3 PATTERN

Author:LEI Cheng; LUO Zhendong

ABSTRACT: In the process of integration and evolution of metropolitan center and peripheral space, the community space and population structure change dramatically, and the supply of community public service facilities is facing challenges. Based on the whole process of “regional supply, planning, construction and operation”, this paper constructs the supply system of community public service facilities in metropolitan area with “construction, control, and use” as the core, and puts forward the main points of facilities supply for “space coverage, all links control and full cycle operation”。 Based on the empirical study of Xinbei District of Changzhou, this paper discusses the specific methods applied in the planning of supply of community service facilities in metropolitan area. The supply link should make clear the standard of the supply of classified facilities, the supply subject and the space model, and ensure the fairness of the supply of the facilities. The control link should optimize the preparation of the special planning and the control plan, manage the process of implementing the multi-department cooperative planning and ensure the effectiveness of the space supply. The operation link should strengthen the urban and rural planning control to extend to the community, promote the community planning and the community planner system construction, construct the operation management mechanism which pays equal attention to the supervision and the communication, and enhance the community facility supply and demand matching efficiency.

KEYWORDS: metropolitan area; community public service facilities; 3-3 Pattern; supply system; Xinbei District

♦  PLANNING EXPLORATION OF SUB-DISTRICT AND COMMUNITY PUBLIC SERVICE FACILITIES IN THE NEW ERA: CHONGQING PRACTICE FROM SERVICE SHORTAGE TO GOVERNANCE COLLABORATION

Author:WANG Yue; PENG Yaoling; YAN Jingjing; MENG Qing

ABSTRACT: Sub-di s t r ict and communi t y are the basic units for daily life of residents and important platform of social governance, and public service facilities at sub-district and community level are important carrier of urban basic public services. From the perspective of “service supply” and “governance collaboration”, this paper reveals the shortages and problems in the planning, construction, and management of basic public service facilities at present, explores the public service facilities planning model and implementation policy mechanism coupling the grassroots social governance unit and the basic public service unit, thus proposing the construction of “20-minute sub-district public service circle” and “10-minute community life service circle” through the construction of service center at sub-district and community level, making up the shortage of grassroots public service facilities, optimizing the structure of urban grassroots space organization, as well as promoting the integration of urban planning and social governance.

KEYWORDS: service supply; governance collaboration; sub-district; community; public service facilities; comprehensive service center

♦  RESEARCH PROGRESS AND PROSPECT OF PUBLIC SERVICE FACILITIES LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION MODELS

Author:TAO Zhuolin; CHENG Yang; DAI Teqi; ZHENG Qingjing

ABSTRACT: This paper first reviews primary research progress of spatial layout optimization models of public service facilities at home and abroad. Main types of optimization models and their primary characteristics are briefly summarized and compared, including classic location-allocation models and relevant development forms, maximum equity models, multi-objective models, dynamic and stochastic location models, and hierarchical facilities location models. The comments and research prospects of these models are stated in terms of optimization objectives, assumptions on facility-selecting activities, demand variation within planning period, processing of hierarchy and size of facilities, and processing of existing facility resources. This paper is expected to be beneficial to the application and development of public service facilities spatial optimization models in China.

KEYWORDS: public service facilities; location-allocation; optimization models; equity; efficiency; research progress

♦  DISCUSSION ON THE DEMARCATION PRINCIPLE AND REGULATORY POLICY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARY

Author:CHENG Maoji

ABSTRACT: In order to strengthen space control, limit urban sprawl, and build ecological civilization, China has put forward the requirement of delimiting the boundary of urban development. However, there were some problems with the pilot work on urban development boundary demarcation that began in 2014, including different understanding of the connotation of urban development boundary and different principle of demarcation. At the national level, there are no unified standards, or laws and regulations on the urban development boundary, which has affected the control effect of urban development boundary. Based on the purpose of delimiting urban development boundary, learning from the theory and practice at home and abroad, this paper proposes that the urban development boundary should be the ultimate boundary of the stable stage of urbanization or the threshold boundary limited by ecological environment or resource carrying capacity. The demarcation of the urban development boundary should be complied with the principle of ecological priority, space suitability evaluation, dominant function position, prediction of the ultimate population size, and adaptation to the reasonable layout of the urban structure. It also puts forward suggestions for enacting relevant laws and regulations as soon as possible to clarify different policies inside and outside urban development boundary, so as to realize the control implementation of urban development boundary.

KEYWORDS: urban development boundary; space control; policy

♦  INFLUENCES OF GREENWAY ON THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF USERS WITH DIFFERENT PROXIMITY DEGREES: A STUDY ON WATERFRONT GREENWAY IN GUANGZHOU CITY

Author:ZHANG Hongyun; ZHU Zhanqiang; ZOU Dongsheng

ABSTRACT: Urban greenway is an important part of the urban green space system, as well as an important space carrier to support residents’ outdoor physical activities, which is closely related to residents’ health. Residents living closer to the green open space are more active in participating in physical activities. Taking a typical waterfront greenway in Guangzhou City as an example, this paper compares the levels of low-, moderate-, and high-intensity physical activities of users with different proximity degrees (i.e., distance between home and greenway) and discusses the influence of greenway proximity on users’ physical strength. It is found that the degree of proximity has a significant effect on the low-intensity walking behavior, and the level of walking of residents who live closer to the greenway is higher than that of other residents. At the same time, the degree of proximity has no significant influence on the moderate- and high-intensity physical behaviors. In general, although the result does not adequately show that the level of physical activities of users closer to the greenway is higher than that of other users, it proves that the construction of greenways has a significant effect on the promotion of residents’ outdoor activities, and that the closer the residents live, the greater the effect is.

KEYWORDS: green space; proximity; physical activity; greenway; Guangzhou City

♦  A STUDY ON THE ECOLOGICAL ADAPTABILITY OF TIBETAN DWELLINGS IN MANGKANG COUNTY

Author:WANG Yufeng

ABSTRACT: Tibetan dwelling is built up based on the harsh natural conditions of high altitude, extreme coldness, and high radiation in the Tibetan Plateau at the era with relatively backward technology and scarce materials. It should be considered as a dwelling system with ecological adaptability that was created by the Tibetan ancestors combining their religious beliefs and custom with local conditions and materials during the long-time life and production practices, which achieves the sustainable development of ecological concepts. Based on the design principle of ecological dwelling and the characteristics of the folk dwelling in Mangkang county, this paper puts forward the concept of ecological construction, that is, the concept of construction, fengshui view and growth view, and so on. Combined with the geographical environment and climate conditions of Mangkang, this paper carries out an application study from perspectives including the site environment, construction mode, spatial layout, color and decoration aspects, and sums up several suggestions in regard to respect the nature, reasonable creation, local materials, environment protection, respect users and so on. In addition, an exploration on practice in the residential ecological and regional fields is also conducted, hoping to provide certain references for related regional ecological residential construction either in China or abroad.

KEYWORDS: Tibetan dwelling; ecological concept; location conditions; construction style; color and decoration; Mangkang County

♦  URBAN SYMBOL: A NEW METHOD FOR URBAN IMAGE DESIGN BASED ON SEMIOTICS

Author:LIU Pu; PENG Zhenghong

ABSTRACT: With the similarities of design caused by accelerated urbanization and internationalization, more and more design turns to urban characteristic culture to seek solutions. Considering the shortage of existing methods of urban image design, it needs to absorb design ideas from other disciplines. This paper analyzes the link between urban culture and semiotics thinking, then specifically classifies concrete urban symbols which can be extracted, puts forward methods and principles of how to extract and construct urban symbols based on semantics, and finally analyzes urban symbol features to guide its application in urban image design. Regarding this as an entry point, it explores the design method of extracting elements to conduct featured design, so as to facilitate discipline fusion of urban planning and art design by semiotics theory, as well as promoting urban cultural characteristics inheritance by the carrier of urban image.

KEYWORDS: urban image; urban culture; urban symbol; urban characteristics; regional culture; semiotics

♦  ESTABLISHMENT OF A MULTISCALE SPONGE SYSTEM IN HILLY CITIES BASED ON RAINWATER CORRIDOR

Author:JIAO Sheng; ZHOU Min; DAI Yanjiao; YIN Yicheng; HAN Jingyan

ABSTRACT: Large-scale development and construction activities have intensified the hardening of urban underlying surface, and the constructions such as “three supplies and one leveling” (supply of water, electricity, and road, and leveling ground) have blocked the natural process of rainfall runoff. In this regard, appropriate sponge city planning methods should be explored in various regions according to their own “source and confluence” characteristics and hydrological conditions. Considering the features of intensively developed gullies in hilly regions, this paper puts forward the thought and method to establish a multiscale urban sponge system based on rainwater corridor. In detail, the system should first identify the multiscale rainwater corridors according to terrain characteristics and use them as ecological drainage corridors, and then connect the low-impact facilities in the city through those corridors correspondingly; furthermore, the system should divide the catchment units properly in order to control rainwater hierarchically. After those steps, an ecological drainage network can be established to solve the problem of waterlogging in the city which is caused by the rainstorm-prone climatic conditions. Simultaneously, by integrating the sponge system establishment with the compilation of urban planning, this paper explores the planning path of implementing the sponge system in different planning systems such as spatial layout planning, green space system planning, drainage system planning, index planning, etc., so as to realize multi-plan integration.

KEYWORDS: sponge system; rainwater corridor; hilly region; multiscale; multi-plan integration

♦  DILEMMA AND RECONSTRUCTION OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM

Author:HAO Tianwen; KONG Yanhong

ABSTRACT: Over-range use of the rainfall calculation method, and the mismatch between design standard and discharge capacity of drainage facilities are the main reasons for urban drainage problems. All-round improvement of the design standard for rainwater pipeline network cannot completely solve the problem of urban road waterlogging, but rather it may significantly increase the investment of drainage projects. Combining with the basic characteristics of drainage project and the current situation of urban drainage pipeline network, in order to effectively deal with urban drainage problems, it is necessary to strictly limit the application range of rainfall calculation method, rationally configure the construction standard of different facilities within the drainage system, and ensure that the overall drainage capacity of urban drainage system can meet the requirement of design standard.

KEYWORDS: rainwater pipeline; drainage system; design return period; rainstorm intensity

♦  GRADE STRUCTURE OF PUBLIC PLANNING VALUES: BASED ON CONTENT ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC MESSAGE IN THE FIELD OF URBAN PLANNING

Author:ZHANG Yanji

ABSTRACT: Serving the people is an important concept that planners should uphold. However, there are few systematic studies on the planning issues the public concern, their realistic demands and related values. Therefore, through the qualitative content analysis of online public messages, this paper summarizes 118 subcategories and 24 main categories that the public cares about. The research finds that every resident has a self-centered and outward extended “grade circle of planning affairs”。 The core of the circle contains planning affairs which have more private and local characteristics. Such topics account for a larger proportion of related messages and have more intensely negative emotions. Meanwhile, residents put more emphasis on procedural and substantive fairness. With expansion of the circle to periphery, more general and more public planning affairs emerge. People tend to give priority to efficiency, and the proportion of relevant messages and their negative emotions gradually decline. Such “grade structure of public planning values” indicates that residents are not abstract or homogeneous groups. Additionally, it is inaccurate and incomplete to label the general public with value of fairness orientation.

KEYWORDS: planning value; public message; qualitative content analysis; grade structure