♦ MEASURING CHINA’S URBAN SPRAWL IN THE RAPID URBANIZATION PERIOD BY MULTI-INDICATOR INDEX METHOD
Author:WANG Jiating; XIE Yu; MA Hongfu; CAI Siyuan
ABSTRACT: This paper attempts to build an index system containing population, economy, land use, and infrastructure by using statistical data, and empirically measures the urban sprawl level of China’s 69 cities during 2000-2014. Then it analyzes the results from the perspective of region and period, and discusses the division of sprawl types and the characteristics of each type. The main conclusions are: （1） the multi-indicator index is applicable to measuring China’s current urban sprawl level; （2） urban sprawl of big and medium-sized cities is becoming serious, but this trend has been alleviated in recent years; （3） a significant regional difference exists in the urban sprawl level and trend of big and medium-sized cities; （4） different types of urban sprawl have different structures and characteristics.
KEYWORDS: rapid urbanization; urban sprawl; index system; measurement
♦ AN ANALYSIS OF GOVERNMENT-LED TRANSFORMATION OF URBAN SPATIAL STRUCTURE: BASED ON AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF YANGZHOU
Author:LIU Yuping; ZHANG Jingxiang
ABSTRACT: Based on a premise that the local government makes full use of land resources to promote growth, the article studies its spatial development strategy and explains the effect of these strategies on the urban space development. It is concluded that the local government-led development of urban space has led to a series of urban spatial structure problems, inducing inefficient urban expansion and undermining city’s sustainable economic and social development.
KEYWORDS: government behaviors; spatial strategy; “structure-led” urban expansion
♦ A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS ON URBAN INNOVATION NETWORK OF METROPOLITAN REGION AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS
ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the inherent relationship between innovation and development of metropolitan region from the perspective of urban network. Based on a logic deduction, this paper proposes the concept of metropolitan urban network of innovation and analyzes theoretically its characteristics, including the multi-scale feature of its spatial scale, the functional polycentricity of its spatial structure and the relationship between cities as nodes and the network itself. Through the lens of theoretical analysis, this paper conducts a preliminary empirical examination of these characteristics by taking the example of the Yangtze River Delta Region. The results indicate that the urban network of innovation does exist at the regional, national and global scale. The degree of functional polycentricity of this network decreases as the spatial scale become large. Meanwhile, the role of Shanghai as a “hub” connecting cities both inside and outside the Yangtze River Delta Region has been mainly realized at the national and global scale since its role at the regional scale has been decentralized to other sub-central cities.
KEYWORDS: urban network; innovation; metropolitan region; Yangtze River Delta Region
♦ RESEARCH ON SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY FOR THE CULTURAL AND CREATIVE INDUSTRY IN SHUNYI DISTRICT, BEIJING
Author:CAO Shan; WANG Zhuo
ABSTRACT: This essay analyzed the spatial development and characteristic of cultural and creative industry in Shunyi District and compared the relationship between the layout of the cultural and creative industry in Shunyi District and the city center of Beijing. It is found that the spatial layout is messy, and the existing resources of Shunyi District are not fully used and neither match with its spatial location advantage. The difference between the space development of the east and west area is huge. The paper summarized the spatial demand characteristics of the cultural and creative classes, and put forward spatial optimization strategies according to the development trend of the cultural and creative industry in Shunyi District.
KEYWORD: Shunyi District of Beijing; cultural and creative industry; space optimization
♦ FACTOR ALLOCATION MECHANISM IN VILLAGES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE INDUCED INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE: A CASE STUDY ON VILLAGES IN THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA REGION
Author:TANG Weicheng; PENG Zhenwei; ZHU Jieming
ABSTRACT: A large number of villages in China are growing rapidly under the form of an induced institutional change and with a reasonable factor allocation mechanism. Two typical case villages in the Yangtze River Delta Region are selected to further elaborate this phenomenon based on the theory of induced institutional change. The case study reveals that village institution has dual attributes, including exogenous and endogenous ones. Exogenous attribute determines that the village institution is affected by the national institutional change in different periods, and the endogenous attribute is more about the internal incentive structure of the village stimulated by the external influence. The incentive structure drives the vitality of economic factors at the village level by several steps. Firstly, the economic entities share the credible commitments attached to the village collective which facilitates the internal transaction of economic factors in the village. Secondly, the village collective identifies the growth area and boundary, coordinates externalities of development projects, and optimizes the allocation of economic factors. Also, in order to promote the institutional reform of the village and overcome the “stickiness” of the village institution in terms of the adaption towards the macro system, various methods of compensation are established, which have alleviated the uneven distribution of the income-cost of institutional change. Multiple means of the institutional reform have promoted the formation of the factor allocation mechanism. Even though under the same development logic, two cases show long-term differences in feature characteristics and form diversified development paths due to the different setting of single historical institution. The application of the theory of induced institutional change provides a framework for the endogenous development of villages in China.
KEYWORDS: institutional change; induced attribute; transaction cost; factor allocation
♦ RESEARCH ON CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF VILLAGES IN PERI-URBAN REGION OF MEGA CITIES: A CASE STUDY OF RURAL AREAS IN GUANGZHOU
Author:ZHANG Lei; YE Yumin; SUN Yue; CHEN Jiao
ABSTRACT: In the rapid urbanization process, to make plans and policies properly matching with different contexts of villages, planners are facing a challenge to effectively classify villages with different levels of urbanization. Existing classification method based on sociology or anthropology generally needs a long-time survey and observation in field, and is difficult to conduct for most of China’s professional planners; pragmatic method based on empirical judgment and location of villages lacks objective facts, which is difficult to make dynamic adjustments. This paper develops a method based on the framework of Lewis’s dualism, and classifies villages by various level of urbanization, i.e., inflexible dual villages, flexible dual villages, and general villages. We implement the method of dualism village classification in Guangzhou’s rural area, by taking the proportion of migrants in the village and the proportion of land used for collective construction of the village as the core indicators. And then, it further compares the differences of different types of villages in the dimensions of industrial structure, collective economy, village construction, and living environment of according to this classification. The results show that the method can objectively reflect their variety in terms of demography, socio-economical dimension, and land use, thus providing reference for village planning preparation.
KEYWORDS: village classification; urbanization; dual-structure; Guangzhou
♦ A STUDY ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE TYPES OF RURAL CONCENTRATED COMMUNITY CONSTRUCTION IN SOUTHERN JIANGSU PROVINCE: FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF RURAL GOVERNANCE CHANGES
Author:WANG Yong; LI Guangbin
ABSTRACT: The construction of rural concentrated community contains rich connotation of rural governance, and its construction types are deeply influenced by the rural governance model. Based on the internal relationship between rural concentrated community construction and rural governance, this paper builds a dynamic correlation analysis framework for the evolution of rural concentrated community construction. Taking Southern Jiangsu Province as an example, it systematically analyzes the evolutional mechanism of the types of rural concentrated community construction from the perspective of rural governance changes. Since the reform and opening up, Chinese rural governance model has changed from “rural limited autonomy” to “rural project governance”， and then to “rural pluralistic governance”。 With the changes of rural governance, rural concentrated communities in Southern Jiangsu Province present different types: from village autonomic construction to government-led construction, and then to multi-stakeholder joint construction.
KEYWORDS: rural concentrated community; rural governance; community construction type; Southern Jiangsu Province
♦ SPACE PRODUCTION OF “VILLAGE-TURNED COMMUNITY” : FROM DIFFERENTIATION AND DISCRETIZATION TO INTEGRATION
Author: DU Peipei
ABSTRACT: According to Lefebvre’s theory of “production of space”， in line with the features of the “village-turned” rural resettlement community （HS）， this paper divides the space production of such communities into 3 phrases: the differentiated absolute space before resettlement, the discrete abstract space after resettlement, and the transitional differential space after resettlement. In the different phrases, the government, market, and residents have different influences on space production. The paper carries out a multidimensional analysis on the spaces of different periods by using “spatial ternary dialectics”， explores the production mechanism and logic of different types of spaces, and then conducts reflections on the promotion of space integration.
KEYWORDS: Lefebvre; space production; resettlement
♦ REFLECTIONS ON ACCELERATING THE CONSTRUCTION OF MASTER PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM OF MASTER PLANNING: TAKING BEIJING AS AN EXAMPLE
Author:SHI Xiaodong; WANG Liang
ABSTRACT: Master planning is a centralized reflection of the modernization of urban governance system and governance capacity. However, problems often arise in the implementation of master planning, such as inadequate transformation of development concept, unclear decomposition of task formulation, inadequate guarantee of implementation path and policy mechanisms, as well as the untimely monitoring and evaluation. This paper, taking the implementation of Beijing Master Plan as an example, establishes the implementation system of urban master plan by five steps: （1） organizational leadership, （2） detailed task list decomposition, （3） improving the planning and management system, （4） promoting reform and innovation, （5） carrying out urban evaluation.
KEYWORDS: master planning; implementation; system; construction; Beijing
♦ THOUGHTS ON THE THIRD-PARTY PROFESSIONAL FORCES TO ASSIST PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN URBAN RENEWAL: TAKING HUBEI RENEWAL AS AN EXAMPLE
Author:YANG Xiaochun; MAO Qizhi; GAO Wenxiu; SONG Cheng
ABSTRACT: In the current situation that the public participation level is low and the participation ability differs a lot, the participation of third-party professional forces can improve the effectiveness of public participation in urban planning. This paper summarizes the positive effects of third-party participation in the Shenzhen Hubei renewal project in inspiring ordinary people, triggering academic thinking, and promoting democratic decision-making in the government. At the same time, the corresponding deficiencies, such as the absence of sustained motivation, failing to obtain local residents’ support, and the shortcomings in technical and regulatory procedures were brought about.
KEYWORDS: Hubei; third-party professional forces; public participation; urban renewal
♦ CRITICAL THINKING ON MULTIPLE VALUES IN GUANGZHOU NANHAI TEMPLE AREA REGENERATION PLANNING STUDY
Author:CHEN Weizhen; RUAN Yisan
ABSTRACT: Based on the regional regeneration of Nanhai Temple area in the context of the “three olds （old town, old factory, and old village） regeneration” policy in Guangzhou City, this article analyzes the land-based development model and problems lurking in the model and discusses the possible resources that can be integrated in this area, as well as their values. The article raises the core issue in the regeneration from the perspective of value variances between the “urbanization of land” and the “urbanization of people”， which is worth considering.
KEYWORDS: three olds regeneration; land; resource integration; critical thinking on multiple values
♦ INCOMERS AND SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF CREATIVE BLOCKS: FROM A PERSPECTIVE OF GENTRIFICATION
ABSTRACT: In the new economic era, the economic revival of large cities, urban renewal, and urban transformation have all shown close connections with the creative industry. The development of the creative industry brings about the re-use of traditional urban space, which causes the conversion of space. In the social construction of creative blocks, the social differentiation and cultural remodeling of the inner city triggered by incomers result in the production of cultural values and the consumption conversion, which contributes to the creation of new meaning of social space. From the perspectives of gentrification, incomers, on the one hand, promote the cultural and social values of traditional spaces through the rediscovery of inner city space, which can increase the value of these spaces; on the other hand, as more and more economic resources are imported, the creativity and art are eventually expelled by market and business forces, which result in the separation of the creative group, the alienation of creative blocks, and the paradox of creative city development.
KEYWORDS: gentrification; urban renewal; incomers; creative blocks; social construction
♦ A STUDY ON THE SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NIGHTTIME VITALITY IN THE CITY CENTER OF SHANGHAI
Author:ZHONG Weijing; WANG De
ABSTRACT: The nighttime vitality of a city is an important reflection of its modernization, economic prosperity and concentration of population vitality. As a result, it is increasingly significant to study the characteristics of a city’s nighttime vitality and formation mechanism, so as to enhance the quality of urban space and people's demands for activities. Using the mobile phone signaling data, this paper conducts a quantitative study on the nighttime vitality of Shanghai city center and visualizes the spatial distribution characteristics of urban nighttime vitality, spatio-temporal changes and the spatial distribution of different types of nighttime vitality. In addition, the paper measures changes in the correlation between nighttime vitality index of living and mixed land use within different radius. The results show that the nighttime vitality of Shanghai city center is characterized by gathering in the commercial and business district and a continuous high-level belt within the inner ring road. The main commercial functions which have higher vitality are business offices, hotels, nighttime entertainment sites, wholesale markets, express delivery and logistics, which apparently differ in spatial distribution. The correlation analysis result shows that the gathering effect of land for public facilities is slightly stronger than that of residential land, while industrial land has the negative influence. In addition, the mixing degree of residential land and land for public facilities within 500 meters have important influence on the nighttime vitality. Accordingly, this study can be considered as a basis for the decision-making of mixed land use and the function layout in strategies for promoting urban nighttime vitality.
KEYWORDS: mobile phone signaling data; nighttime; vitality; mixed land use; Shanghai
♦ A STUDY ON THE SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NIGHTTIME VITALITY IN THE CITY CENTER OF SHANGHAI
Author:ZHONG Weijing; WANG De
ABSTRACT: The new normal era witnesses the policy shifting from growth planning to quality management. It is in urgent need to carry out the scientific assessment and quantitative research on the built environment. As street is an important public domain, its quality and vitality become one of the major research directions. Focusing on street space, this paper analyzes the existing quantitative approaches of street space in China and abroad from three aspects: the concept of street space quality, the large-scale quantification method, and the measurement method of street space quality. In conclusion, there are a number of measurement approaches for physical street space in various aspects, but the integrated application of the approaches is limited. It is a new research direction in the world to use street view pictures with high availability to conduct street space measurement. The influencing mechanism of the quality and vitality of street space still requires in-depth research, and the discussion about scientific research-based street planning and design methods is lacked in existing studies.
KEYWORDS: big data; quality; measurement; built environment; public space