♦ CREDIT OF URBAN PLANNING: EVOLUTION, CRISES, AND CHOICES
Author :HE Huiwen; GENG Lei
ABSTRACT: Urban planning is a public policy with the contractual nature, and its credibility should be examined. In current public discussion in China, the phenomenon of limited recognition and support gained by urban planning shows the lack of credit. Through investigating inferior credit of urban planning in China, it can be found that there are 3 substantial causes: （1） institutional ambiguity formed by previous planning system and path dependence of institution evolution cause credit downgrade; （2） the planning credit differs among different scales of planning, and small-scale urban planning with innovation potentials are also facing credit crises; （3） the transformation of planning institution and the absence of public participation in different planning scales are determining factors of low planning credit. In order to reverse this situation, it is crucial to improve the credit performance of urban planning and to adjust its institutional design, as well as stressing that planning should restrict the social subject, tell truth to the authority, and promote governance optimization under institutional improvement.
KEYWORDS: urban planning; public policy; contract; credit; institutional transformation
♦ COMPOSITION, RELEVANCE, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS IN CITY CENTER: BASED ON THE EVOLUTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL CIRCULATION
Author:GUAN Yu; YANG Jianqiang
ABSTRACT: As the core of a city, the city center involves the changes in the functional structure of the central area including functional composition, relevance, and distribution, which are closely related to the circulation of capital changes, and gradually change with the evolution of city capital circulation. Firstly, this paper summarizes the basic composition of functional elements and the impacts of the capital circulation on city center. Secondly, it analyzes the relevance between the elements of the city center in terms of industry, transportation, space, etc., and studies the role of increasing the scale of the city center, optimizing the category and way of relevance, and diversifying the components in enhancing the attractiveness of the central area at different stages of development. Finally, the paper proposes that functional division reflects the functional relevance in space, and summarizes the features of different stages, such as functional mixing in the early industrialization stage, functional division in the mid-industrialization stage, division and cooperation between different types of industries in the late industrialization stage, as well as the functional diversification and relatively mixing in the post-industrial era.
KEYWORDS: city center; functional structure; element relevance; space; capital
♦ RESEARCH ON GREEN SPACE PLANNING METHODS BASED ON URBAN-RURAL TRANSECT ZONING
Author:XING Zhong; YU Qiao; GU Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qian; YE Lin
ABSTRACT: The green space of urban planning areas includes green space within urban construction area and non-development land: water body, agricultural land, and forestland. Difference in land-use system and associated planning and control methods ignore the integrity of green space in terms of space, function, and process, resulting in issues of inefficient protection and utilization of green space. Through literature research and planning practice analysis, the paper develops a green-space planning method based on urban-rural transect by combining methods of “urban-rural transect” planning and watershed planning. The method is interpreted as: ① building transect zones through the overlapping of urban-rural transect division and watershed-ecological zones based on regional ecological process; ② identifying planning orientation and land-use layout pattern in line with the natural attribute of green space and functions derived from urban-rural construction; ③ formulating regulatory measures and design guidance in accordance with green space conservation and utilization in the context of urban-rural transect.
KEYWORDS: urban planning area; green space; urban-rural transect zoning; natural pattern and process; planning and control method
♦ STUDY ON SPATIAL LAYOUT AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF HEAT ISLAND IN THE MAIN URBAN AREA OF WUHAN
Author:HUANG Yaping; LU Youpeng; SHAN Zhuoran; WANG Zhiyong
ABSTRACT: The impact of urban spatial form on urban microclimate has always been the focus of academia and planning administration departments. Taking 589 zoning units in the main city of Wuhan as a sample, RS-GIS technology and multiple linear regression models were adopted to identify the spatial layout and influencing factors of the spatial distribution of urban heat island （UHI）。 The study found that the land surface temperature （LST） of the main urban area of Wuhan regularly fluctuates from the center to the periphery, showing a “double U” structure; the high temperature areas are concentrated and distributed along the main road, and the low temperature area are concentrated around the large scale water body; the spatial layout of UHI is significantly impacted by the ecological pattern of “Great Rivers and Great Lakes” and the large-scale industrial land use, as well as being related to the public center system. In order to reduce the heat island effect, corresponding countermeasures in urban spatial layout were put forward in this paper.
KEYWORDS: urban heat island （UHI）； spatial layout; land surface temperature （LST）； Wuhan
♦ RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN “SUBSTANCE” AND “USE”： A DISCUSSION ON CHINA’S URBAN DESIGN DOCTRINE AND ITS DISCOURSE SYSTEM
Author:HONG Liangping; QIAO Jie
ABSTRACT: The construction of a discipline depends on the doctrinal development, while the doctrinal development requires the construction of the discourse system. This paper traces back to the origin of the thoughts of China’s urban design doctrine from a historical perspective. Based on a comparative analysis on urban design and its development between the Chinese and Western cities, this paper proposes that, starting from basic concepts and theories, we should reconstruct an urban design discourse system in contemporary China by use of modern discourse based on the core thoughts and values of Chinese urban design. The paper emphasizes that the urban design discourse system should follow the principle that “substance and use are from the same source”。 The thoughts and theory are the “substance”， while the method, strategy, and technical system are the “use”。 The key of urban design doctrine that is free from the influence of capital lies in that the doctrine should have its own independent value standards. Human, nature, and society are the three basic dimensions of urban design values, and the balanced development between them can truly lead to the future of urban design.
KEYWORDS: urban design doctrine; discourse system; relationship between “substance” and “use”； value orientation
♦ PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES ON CITYSCAPE GUIDELINE FOR SUBDIVIDED DISTRICTS IN COMPREHENSIVE URBAN DESIGN: A CASE STUDY OF WUYISHAN CENTRAL CITY
Author:WANG Chenghui; JIANG Ruopan; JIANG Jinhan; WU Xiao
ABSTRACT: Cityscape guideline for subdivided districts is an important tool to deliver the general goals and the characteristic framework of comprehensive urban design, and a critical medium between comprehensive design and the lower level planning. This paper discusses general problems in cityscape guidelines for subdivided districts, including unclear mission, weak support works, and deficient derivation of general characteristic framework. Accordingly, the paper elaborates differences among various cityscape guidelines, and highlights basic research works. Then with Wuyishan central city as an example, it puts forward that the compilation of cityscape guideline for subdivided districts should follow the general development philosophy of protection, sustainability, and innovation, and carry forward the goals and features of comprehensive urban design, as well as compilation contents, including goals, structural derivation, index control, and form guidance.
KEYWORDS: cityscape guideline for subdivided districts; comprehensive urban design; planning methods
♦ CUTTING METHOD: A NEW METHOD FOR THE URBAN DESIGN OF BLOCK SPACE
ABSTRACT: Spatial problem has been one of the core issues in the field of urban planning. In recent years, in contrast to the rapid increase of planning practice and fast expansion of the discipline, the progress of research on spatial ontology, especially spatial design method is relatively slow. Based on the comparative study on spatial form of typical urban block, this paper begins with the characteristics of the space, and expounds the inner mechanism that influences the spatial form of urban block. Then it puts forward the space cutting design method based on the spatial logic from top to bottom, taking into account both the land economy and the aesthetic requirements for public space, and constructs the specific steps of urban block space design: keeping border, corner concession, excavating center, dividing site, setting height, and annex design. Finally, it advances to the operational level. On this basis, the rational characteristic and the strain mode of the spatial cutting method applied in urban design are analyzed throughout the practice case.
KEYWORDS: urban design; space cutting method; spatial form; urban form
♦ RESEARCH ON THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SPATIAL MECHANISM OF BUS NETWORK IN MOUNTAINOUS TOWNS
Author:HUANG Yong; WAN Dan; FENG Jie
ABSTRACT: To explore the scientific principle of special planning of bus system in mountainous towns, complex network model of urban bus system have been constructed and evaluation index for analyzing the overall, local, and individual network structure characteristics has been set up in crossing fields of urban and rural planning and complex science, with adoption of the principle and method of complete network analysis, by selecting Chongqing and Chengdu as the comparative samples of mountainous towns and plain towns. “Agglomeration and fragmentation” structural features as well as “terrain barrier” composition mechanism of bus system complex network under the constraint of urban spatial form in mountainous area have been revealed, which provides scientific evidence for special planning and optimization of public transport system in mountainous towns.
KEYWORDS: urban and rural planning ; mountainous towns ; bus system; complex network
♦ A DISCRIMINATION ON INFLUENCING FACTORS OF THE SCALE OF URBAN RESIDENTIAL BLOCKS
Author:YE Qing; ZHANG Xiangzhi; ZHAO Qiang; LI Xinyang
ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the necessity of the study on residential block scale and its influencing factors. On the basis of analyzing the evolution of influencing factors of the scale of basic component units of residential land, the paper discriminates and identifies six influencing factors of residential block scale, and then puts forward some suggestions for the planning of residential blocks.
KEYWORDS: residential block; appropriate scale; influencing factors; discriminate
♦ IMPACT OF “WEMEDIA” ON PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN URBAN PLANNING: A CASE STUDY ON THE URBAN DESIGN OF XUANWU AVENUE IN NANJING
ABSTRACT: From a stakeholder’s perspective, the paper discusses the positive and negative impacts of WeMedia on the public participation in urban planning based on a case study of the public incident concerning The Urban Design of Xuanwu Avenue in Nanjing. The research found out that （1） WeMedia expands the channel of information spread, it reduces the feedback cost from bottom to top during the public participation process, but the comprehensiveness and objectiveness of the information it carries become the key influencing the participation effect. （2） The absence of indirect actors is one of the major reasons for ineffective participation. Finally, the paper provides three suggestions including building up a public participation platform transiting from single-functioned feedback and complain tool toward a complex media to participate every links throughout the urban planning process; the methods of public participation should be discreetly designed adapting to different types, levels, and issues on planning; establishing a standardized and scientific response model for such public affairs by related government departments.
KEYWORDS: WeMedia; urban planning; public participation; public affairs
♦ A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS ON THE ANCIENT TOWNS ALONG THE GRAND CANAL （JIANGSU SECTION）： A CASE STUDY OF HISTORIC AND CULTURAL TOWNS IN JIANGSU
Author:WU Xiao; WANG Lingjin; QIANG Huanhuan; NING Yuxi
ABSTRACT: With a long history, the Grand Canal in China is one of the greatest hydraulic engineering systems in the world. Some settlements alongside not only reflect the typical production, lifestyle and all kinds of social activities in canal basin, but also show their distinctive evolution laws with the rise and decline of the canal. This paper focuses on the historic and cultural towns along the Grand Canal （Jiangsu section）， and reveals their evolution clue, stage division, characteristics and motivation mechanism, by means of field research, historical textual research, spatial diagram, and so on, in order to provide key basis for the further exploration on value characteristic of ancient towns.
KEYWORDS: the Grand Canal; ancient town; historical evolution; main line; motivation
♦ FORMULATING A SYSTEM IN LINE WITH THE TIMES: SUN KE AND THE EARLY ESTABLISHMENT OF CHINESE MODERN URBAN PLANNING
ABSTRACT: This paper discusses three vital laws: Interim Regulation of Guangzhou City, Draft Regulation for Urban Land Registration and Taxation in Guangdong Province, and City Design and Zoning Enabling Act Protocol proposed under the leadership of SUN Ke in different periods. They were the main legal resources respectively for Organization Act of Municipality, Land Law, and City Plan Law released by the State of the Republic China, and further became the fundamental legal bases of the early Chinese modern urban planning. The broad social influence of his urban practices, significant position at the core of state policy making, and his outstanding roles in developing urban planning law system made SUN Ke a dominating founder of the early Chinese modern urban planning.
KEYWORDS: SUN Ke; city system; Land Law; City Plan Law; Chinese urban planning history