City Planning Review

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City Planning Review(2019.3)

2019-04-01

♦  Integration

Author:SHI Nan

♦  THE KNOWLEDGE BODY OF URBAN PLANNING OF DAXING IN THE SUI DYNASTY: LITERATURE STUDY BASED ON THE CLUE OF HISTORICAL FIGURES

Author:GUO Lu

ABSTRACT: Due to the lack of ancient theoretic works and the complexity of urban planning, the basic content, structure, and characteristics of ancient Chinese urban planning are vague. To overcome the limitations of previous studies, this paper adopts a literature study based on the clue of historical figures, and takes Daxing in the Sui Dynasty as an example. It teases out the planning process of Daxing, and analyzes and verifies the principal participators and their knowledge compositions, including political strategy, rites and institution, astronomy, geography, geomancy, art of spatial distribution, craft of design, and workforce and materials management. It concludes that there is a structured body of knowledge in the ancient capital planning with dual attributes of “Craft Tradition” and “Court Tradition, ” which is firmly attached to the bureaucratic system.

KEYWORDS: Daxing in the Sui Dynasty; urban planning; body of knowledge; historical figure; the bureaucratic system

♦  DISTRIBUTION OF MIGRANT WORKERS’ EMPLOYMENT SPACE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH URBAN EMPLOYMENT SPACE OF NANJING: A SUB-OCCUPATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

Author:WANG Hui; WU Xiao

ABSTRACT: Taking Nanjing Main City (NMC) as an example, based on the “sub-occupational (commercial service industry and production industry) and overall” perspectives, this paper explores the distribution of employment space of migrant workers from two aspects of “employment agglomeration area” and “employment center system”, and further analyzes its relationship with urban employment space by use of space fitting. The results show: (1) Employment agglomeration areas of migrant workers in commercial service industry are concentrated in the core areas in the southern part of NMC, those in the production industry are concentrated in the northern edge of NMC, the superposition of these two types of agglomeration areas shows an overall pattern of “core radiating + semi-ring”。 (2) The migrant workers in the commercial service industry are concentrated in a single employment center, while there are no employment centers for those in the production industry, the combination of which leads to a “dual-center” structure that has one “center” and one “sub-center” with “single” and “comprehensive” functions respectively. (3) The employment agglomeration areas of migrant workers in commercial service industry present a better integration characteristic, while those in production industry present multiple characteristics of attraction and mutual exclusion, which leads to the dual characteristics of integration and isolation in the relationship between the employment spaces. (4) In view of the relationship between the employment centers respectively based on the sub-occupational division of migrant workers and based on the sub-sectoral division of the city, the two have more similarities, and the employment space of migrant workers in the commercial service industry and that of the service industry of the city show an obvious relationship of molecular force. However, after superposition, they show completely different spatial systems, in which migrant workers have formed an independent center in the northwestern area along the Yangtze River that is separated from the urban employment structure.

KEYWORDS: migrant workers; employment space; relation research; sub-occupation; Nanjing

♦  STATE-LED SOCIAL INTEGRATION MECHANISM WITHIN NEW MIGRANT ENCLAVES OF CHINESE CITIES: A CASE OF DONGGUAN

Author:LI Xiaoling; LI Zhigang

ABSTRACT: In the process of promoting the new urbanization strategy, social integration of the new migrants is paid more attention, since it corresponds to the Three Rural Issues, the construction of socialist harmonious society, and the high-quality new urbanization. Taking the Jiangnan Community in Dongguan as an example, this paper analyzes the boosting mechanism and effectiveness of social integration of community-based new migrant through the questionnaire survey and empirical research. The research shows that the social integration of new migrants in Jiangnan Community is mainly influenced by four factors: individual, society, institution, and community management services. The boosting method mainly involves promoting mutual understanding and communication between new migrants and local residents, thus more effectively transcending institutional factors such as the urban-rural dual system. The empirical evidence shows that community and local government are crucial to the social integration of new migrants. A systematic boosting mechanism should be established from the top to the bottom to promote the deep social integration of new migrants.

KEYWORDS: new migrant; enclave; social integration; boosting mechanism

♦  FROM PASSIVE RECESSION TO SMART SHRINKING: THE TRANSFORMATION TREND AND PATH OF “PLANNING FOR SHRINKAGE” OF SMALL TOWNS IN METROPOLITAN SUBURBS

Author:ZHU Jin; LI Qiang; WANG Luyan

ABSTRACT: The growth and shrinkage of urban population are both outcomes of socio-economic development at the different stages. Shrinking city is a general phenomenon in Western countries, which facilitates the shift of planning ideas and relevant practice reaction. Phenomenon of shrinking can also be found in urbanizing China, especially in some population flow-out areas in the central and western regions. However, some remote suburban towns of Shanghai are also facing the problem of shrinking population and slowdown economy. This paper takes Heqing Town as a case to analyze the trend of “passive recession” under the circumstances of path reliance on growth. The urban development at present has shown the internal and external mechanisms for urban shrinkage. The internal mechanism is reflected by local farmers’ strong willingness to leave countryside and live in urban area, and the external mechanisms is shown by the negative externality, which generates an exclusion effect to local farmers, and the guidance by other macro policies. In order to realize a smart development under the circumstances of shrinking, Heqing Town has to adopt some countermeasures, including restructuring the town and village system in a smart way and downsizing the industrial zones; correspondingly, the spatial layout of the town needs to be adjusted so as to maintain a healthy and sustainable growth in the limited space and enhance the development quality.

KEYWORDS: suburban town; population decline; smart shrinking; transformation path

♦  PLANNING EDUCATION AIMING AT IMPROVING PLANNING QUALITY

Author:SUN Shiwen; SHI Nan; WU Weijia; ZHOU Jianyun; FENG Changchun ; SHI Weiliang; LENG Hong; YU Ying; PENG Zhenwei; WANG Jianguo

♦  URBAN PARK: A NEW MODEL OF URBAN CONSTRUCTION

Author:LI Xiaojiang; WU Chengzhao; WANG Hongyang; ZHONG Ge; LI Weimin; CHENG Yuning; YANG Xiao; LIU Yanping; WANG Xu

♦  PREDICAMENTS AND CONFUSIONS IN THE INHERITANCE AND SHAPING OF FEATURED URBAN LANDSCAPE

Author:L Bin; YANG Baojun; ZHANG Quan; DUAN Degang; WANG Shifu; CHEN Fei; CHEN Tian; PEI Dongwei; JIANG Weihui; ZHOU Lan; LI Jinlu

♦  CO-CONSTRUCTION: A PATH TO HIGH-QUALITY RURAL REVITALIZATION

Author:CHEN Qianhu; LIU Xue; HUANG Zuhui; HUANG Xiangqiu; LI Huaxiao; DUAN Degang; WEN Chunyang; MEI Yongping; ZHAO Hui

♦  RURAL CLASSIFICATION IN THE UK AND ITS ENLIGHTENMENT TO CHINA

Author:GUO Ziwei; HONG Liangping; QIAO Jie; Paul MILBOURNE

ABSTRACT: China’s rural areas are characterized by vast area, dispersed population, and varied develop history. In the context of urbanization and industrialization, rural areas tend to be increasingly differentiated and the research on rural classification is urgently needed. At present, although domestic scholars have carried out some explorations, those on urban-rural dynamic evolution and practical issues are far from enough. Learning the rural classification theory and methods from the UK may be useful for China to build a rural classification system. This paper conducts a comparative study on four typical rural classification methods and implementation effects, including the index of “Rurality” by Paul Cloke, Rural-Urban Classification of England and Wales (RUC2011) by several government departments, the four ideal types of “Post-productivist” countryside by Terry Marsdon, and the four spatial scenarios by Keith Halfacree. According to China’s actual situation, it puts forward suggestions for China’s rural classification in the background of urbanization and globalization.

KEYWORDS: the UK; rural classification; statistics; typology; enlightenment

♦  DISCUSSION ON ESTABLISHMENT OF RAIL METROPOLIS IN NEW TOWN AT THE METROPOLITAN AREA

Author:GAO Chuanlong; HAN Baorui

ABSTRACT: Rail Metropolis is a strategy supporting the expansion of metropolitan space. This paper draws on the experience and characteristics of international rail metropolis in metropolitan area, and based on the current situation of new town development in China, that is, extensive development pattern, seeking for profit, deficiency in supply of commuting public transit regarding the demand, and lack of integration of public transit resources, it proposes the principles for construction of rail metropolis, including matching the rail transport with urban form, guiding urban development with public transit corridor, and adapting the transit hubs to urban central system. Moreover, the paper also puts forward corresponding strategies concerning integrated planning of urban development and rail transport construction, land use responding to rail transport stations, building up large multi-level public transit system, and quantizing evaluation index for rail metropolis.

KEYWORDS: rail metropolis; metropolitan area; new town; transit oriented

♦  WALKING SCALE OF TOD AREA ALONG RAIL TRANSIT LINE

Author:LIU Quan

ABSTRACT: Walking scale or walkable radius is an important basis to define the boundary of the area of TOD planning along a rail transit line, but walking scales of TOD areas in different cities are not the same. Although walking distance can be used to delimit the boundary of the planning area and the scope of influence, walking time is a decisive factor that determines whether a person is willing to walk. These two factors are interrelated according to the “time-distance” conversion relationship and restricted by walking environment elements such as terrain condition, urban form, and traffic environment. As a result, the difference in walking scales of TOD areas is caused by walking time, distance, and environment. By analyzing the differences in TOD walking scales and summarizing their reasons, this paper puts forward some suggestions for determining reasonable walking scales and building effective planning models for TOD areas in China.

KEYWORDS: Transit-Oriented Development (TOD); walking scale; walking distance; walking time; walking environment

♦  SHOPPING AND TRAVEL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS AROUND SUBURBAN METRO STATION AREAS IN SHANGHAI

Author: ZHANG Chao; PAN Haixiao

ABSTRACT: The construction of rail transit promoted the rapid urbanization of the suburbs of Shanghai, and the population gathered in the city periphery also promoted the development of suburban commerce. In general, suburban residents go to the city center every month to buy large goods and buy daily necessities in surrounding grocery stores. However, with the development of rail transit and the increasing number of private cars, the characteristics of shopping trips have become more complicated. Through a survey of residents of two subway stations in the suburbs of Shanghai, it is found that suburban residents have strong dependence on shopping downtown, and rail transit has become the main choice of transportation to the city center; residents choose large supermarkets according to the principle of proximity, and the free supermarket shuttle can enlarge the consumer group of supermarket; improvement of the environment around the subway station and optimization the peripheral bus service level could contribute to the change of transportation choice from private car to rail transit.

KEYWORDS: downtown shopping; grocery shopping; traffic mode; suburban metro stations; land use structure

♦  ANALYSIS ON COMMUTING CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS IN LOW-INCOME NEIGHBOURHOOD AND THE INFLUENCING FACTORS: KUNMING AS A CASE

Author:HOU Xueying; WU Gongsheng

ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the disadvantaged group of low-income group, and based on a perspective combining urban geography with urban sociology and using residents in low-income neighborhood as representatives of low-income group, it analyzes the commuting activity characteristics, internal variations, and influencing factors of low-income group under the background of urban social space differentiation and urban structure restructuring. The paper takes Kunming as the sample city, and uses the method of questionnaire survey to conduct a quantitative analysis on commuting activities of residents in three types of low-income neighborhood, which are urban village, indemnificatory housing (including low-rent, public rent, and economically affordable housing), and residential area of declined factories. The study shows that not only apparent variations on commuting activities exist among low-income group in different types of neighborhood and with different jobs, but also the influencing factors are different from regular citizens. The study provides a foundation for further exploration on issues like employment barrier for disadvantaged group and separation of their residential space.

KEYWORDS: low- income neighborhood; commuting distance; commuting mode; Kunming

♦  PROCESS AND MEANS OF PRODUCTION OF SPACE IN THE DISGUISE OF “CONSTRUCTION OF PLACE”: A CASE STUDY OF THE REDEVELOPMENT OF CBD (DONGHUAMEN RELIC PARK) IN THE OLD CITY OF CHENGDU

Author:WEI Lihua; XU Yongcheng; CONG Yanguo

ABSTRACT: This paper takes the redevelopment of Donghuamen Relic Park (and its surrounding area) in the CBD of the old city of Chengdu as a research object, and makes an analysis of the core of the “Conceptual Planning of Donghuamen Relic Park of Chengdu” with theory of the production of space from the perspective of Neo-Marxism, by finding that in the process of conceptual transformation, city images changed from “Donghuamen Historic Site” to “Donghuamen Relic Park” then to “central park of CBD,” while the “production of space” was disguised of “construction of place.” And by the means of blurring concept, monopolizing discourse, differentiating the city image, symbolizing the historical culture, the government still continue to seek "land finance" from urban renewal, which did not turn to inheriting historical culture and constructing local characteristics due to the planning and constructing of new CBD in Tianfu New Town.

KEYWORDS: production of space; construction of place; means; Donghuamen Relic Park

♦  OVERVIEW AND PROSPECT OF URBAN PLANNING STUDIES BASED ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Author:HOU Luyao; JIANG Yunfang; SHI Tiemao; GUI Qinchang

ABSTRACT: This paper teases out the focus and development tendency of urban planning and climate change studies abroad from 1990 to 2016 using CiteSpace based on the Web of Science (WOS) database. It finds that after experiencing the rapid development from 1970s to 1980s, research stagnation in the middle of and early 1990s, and revival since the late 1990s, the research perspective and research method is more diversified, showing the trend of interdisciplinary nature and diversified subject. In addition, current research tends to focus on interaction mechanism between the urban system and climate change, urban system analysis and evaluation based on climate change, and urban planning coping with climate change. Finally, the paper points out that urban planning research based on climate change is following a development trend of diversified and comprehensive content system, static-to-dynamic simulation analysis method system, and the focus on studying the policy of planning action. Future research in this field will deepen the adaptation planning for combined climate effect and construction of dynamic collaborative planning methods. This research has important reference value to future urban space development and to enhance the progress of key technologies.

KEYWOEDS: urban planning; climate change; knowledge map; CiteSpace