City Planning Review

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City Planning Review(2019.2)

2019-03-01

♦  Revitalization

Author:SHI Nan

♦  ORIGIN, MISSION, AND INSTITUTIONAL SETTING OF URBAN PLANNING

Author:ZHANG Tingwei

ABSTRACT: Based on a brief review on the origin, mission, and institutional setting of contemporary urban planning, as well as the development trend of international planning field, this paper discusses the on-going planning reform and institutional reorganization in Chinese cities since 2018. The paper suggests that the planning reform should be based on two principles: first, the reform must conform to the development direction of China’s national conditions; second, the reform should conform to the evolution direction that the international planning field has already experienced.

KEYWORDS: urban planning; planning reform; planning paradigm shift

♦  SPACE GENE

Author:DUAN Jin; SHAO Runqing; LAN Wenlong; LIU Jinhua; JIANG Ying

ABSTRACT: Based on the research of morphological types, this paper proposes the concept of “Space Gene” from the perspective of urban spatial development theory. Space gene is a unique and relatively stable space model formed by the interaction between urban space, natural environment, and history and culture. It conveys distinctive local characteristics of different regions, forms a special city identity, and maintains the harmonious relationship between urban space, natural environment, and history and culture. The identification, analysis, and guidance techniques of space gene can improve the localization of urban planning and design, which can avoid the practice of using a unified mode to create the same image in different cities. It can provide an effective design path to achieve all win between urban development, natural protection, and cultural inheritance, which contributes to the directional change of urban planning and design approach from spatial form creation to space gene analysis. Furthermore, the paper discusses the prospect of the Space GenBank Project.

KEYWORDS: space gene; spatial development theory; morphological type; sustainable development; spatial interaction; cultural inheritance; locality

♦  URBANIZATION IN CHINA: A STUDY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CONCEPTUAL HISTORY

Author:XU Hao; LI Baihao

ABSTRACT: In Chinese, there is more than one translation for the word “urbanization”。 Recently, the emergence of the word “new urbanization” and its derivatives have enriched such expressions. From the perspective of conceptual history, using bibliometric method, starting with fluctuating frequencies and context of the word, this paper traces the origin and gradual changes of the above concepts and investigates the motivation mechanism of conceptual evolution. Taking words as the research object, the paper intends to demonstrate the uniqueness of China’s urbanization experience, understand its historical logic, and establish a link between the past, the present, and the future.

KEYWORDS: urban planning history; dushihua (urbanization); chengshihua (urbanization); chengzhenhua (urbanization); new urbanization

♦   AN APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS OF “TRANSFER OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS” UNDER THE GOAL OF DECREMENTAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY ON FEATURED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONE IN DONGGUAN WATER TOWN

Author:SHI Yiting; CHEN Zhijun; DENG Ran; HUANG Haiyin

ABSTRACT: Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) is an institutional design concerning land property rights and space management, which is advantageous in realizing the optimization of spatial resources allocation and protecting private property rights through market means. Based on a case study of featured economic development zone in Dongguan Water Town, this paper points out that “difference in institutional environment at home and abroad” does not form major obstacle to the localization process of TDR through comparative research and problem analysis. However, there are still certain applicability difficulties in using TDR to help achieving the goal of decrement development in Dongguan Water Town under the impact of problems such as “willingness of stakeholders, supply and demand relation of development rights on market, relationship with existing policies,and space management.”

KEYWORDS: decrement; transfer of development rights; applicability

♦   CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN AMENITY IN LARGE COMMUNITIES IN THE SUBURB OF HANGZHOU AT THE ERA OF KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

Author:WU Qianbo; ZHANG Luming; YU Shushu

ABSTRACT: Based on the perspective of shaping of urban amenity, the paper selects three typical communities in the suburb of Hangzhou to carry out survey and analysis. It is found that the construction of community facilities at medium- and micro-scales has lagged far behind, which restricts the accumulation of knowledge-based human capital. It is the result of both the rapid expansion of urban land use and urban economic and social development, and the dual supply system of public facilities at municipal and district levels. In the three typical communities, public facilities for education, medication, cultural and sports activities are in deficiency, and there is a disparity between different communities: the conditions in Liangzhu Culture Village that is relatively independent, in certain scale, and open are better; while it is bad in Jiangnanchuncheng where is enclosed and in dispersed distribution. Apart from the influencing factors of the supply system of local government, it is closely related to the construction efforts by developers and the economic conditions of residents. Finally, the paper puts forward corresponding strategies and suggestions in aspects of urban spatial planning, construction of suburb public center, and design of open community, with the emphases laid upon coordinating different interests of local government, developers, and residents to realize balance between efficiency and fairness in the process of socio-economic development, so as to better attract knowledge-based human capital and information technology industry, and enhance the comprehensive competitiveness of urban living environment.

KEYWORDS: knowl edge economy; l arge community; amenity; suburb; Hangzhou

♦   SATISFACTION RESEARCH ON THE SETTLEMENTS OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES BASED ON

HOMO-URBANICUS THEORY: A CASE STUDY OF NANJING

Author:XIA Jing

ABSTRACT: People with disabilities (PwDs) are relatively vulnerable in their daily life. To satisfy the needs of PwDs is an important issue for urban planners, and also an important embodiment of humanistic thought. In order to analyze the matching relationship between archetypical homo-urbanicus and archetypical human settlements from Homo- Urbanicus theory, this paper measures the standards of pursuing spatial contacts of PwDs by assessing satisfaction. Taking Nanjing City as an empirical case, and using semi-structured interview method, the paper evaluates the satisfaction and spatial preference for daily trip of PwDs from six sample settlement units which covers three archetypes: old community, affordable community, and rural community. It then identifies the unit with maximum satisfaction (Fengqiyuan Community), and compares the differences in spatial preference among three archetypes. The result shows that PwDs have strong preference for their home and surrounding area, and weak dependence on breaking this spatial scope. To improve PwDs’ satisfaction for their settlement, the paper suggests that the future planning should firstly enable PwDs’ mobility and accessibility in their home and surrounding area before improving facilities in broader areas.

KEYWORDS: Homo-Urbanicus; people with disabilities (PwDs); settlements; satisfaction; Nanjing City

♦   TRADITIONAL CULTURAL STRATEGY IN ANCIENT CHINESE CITY PLANNING STUDY: A CASE STUDY ON RESIDENTIAL SPACE OF YUAN DADU

Author:ZHAO Chunxiao

ABSTRACT: In the past, much attention was paid to the symbolic meaning of traditional culture in the study of ancient Chinese urban planning, such as the discussion of the planning idea of Yuan Dadu, as well as the Book of Changes and Kaogong Ji. Starting with the relationship between the ancient Chinese field system and the area of each homestead (8 mu) recorded in History of the Yuan Dynasty, and based on a proverb which has been passed down for two thousand years in China, saying “sixteen bu in length, fifteen bu in width, equaling to precisely one mu,” this paper points out that 8 mu equals to the area of a rectangle of 32 bu x 60 bu, which accords with the social organization of traditional nomadic families in Mongolia. Then according to the changes of the filed system and the “32 bu x 60 bu” plane pattern of land in Beijing hutongs, the paper argues that traditional culture not only has a symbolic value of “metaphysics,” but also provides a deeper inspiration for the study of ancient city planning and construction practices. In addition, it further proves that it is necessary to examine the traditional culture in a materialist and dialectical manner in the ancient urban planning study.

KEYWORDS: ancient city planning; field system; Yuan Dadu; Division of homestead area

♦   SPATIAL INVOLUTION AND DE-INVOLUTION: AN EXPLANATORY FRAMEWORK FOR THE SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF CHINA’S LARGE CITIES AND ITS PRELIMINARY VERIFICATION

Author:GUO Leixian

ABSTRACT: From the perspective of urban publicity and based on the theory of involution on the evolution of socio-economic system, this article replaces the economic output factor in the original theory with the material accumulation of public resources - infrastructure and proposes the hypothesis of “spatial involution” in which the marginal supply of infrastructures decreases with population in the process of the spatial evolution of large cities. On the basis of the empirical cases of the central districts of Shanghai and the former urban districts of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, the article argues that China’s large cities have experienced several rounds of spatial involution under the influence of the marginal law and have achieved spatial de-involution by means of “relocation” and “in situ renewal.” In addition, it provides a theoretical framework and empirical cases for explaining the mechanism of spatial development in China’s large cities.

KEYWORDS: involution; spatial evolution; large city; population; infrastructure

♦   HOW TO CONSTRUCT THE INTERACTIVE MECHANISM OF SPATIAL REMOLDING AND VILLAGE TRANSFORMATION

Author:LI Gan; YU Jun

ABSTRACT: The issue of new countryside construction and corresponding urban-rural coordinated development should be discussed from a local perspective. Based on the interdisciplinary spatial principles and the space clue of urban and rural planning theory, combined with the knowledge of locality revitalization in sociology, this article provides a report on space resource allocations and changes around villages in Mogan Mountain in recent ten years by a analysis framework of three dimensional spatial logic, which combines the multi-dimensional connotation of “regional right-type space” and “people-oriented,” explains the problems such as the continuous migration of rural population and the transformation of agriculture and rural morphology, and analyzes the formation conditions and mechanism of the interactive mechanism between spatial remolding and village transformation.

KEYWORDS: space remolding;village transformation; locality revitalization; rural tourism; home-stay

♦   FROM NORMALIZATION TO ACCURACY: A STUDY ON CONSERVATION OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL VILLAGES BASED ON CHARACTERISTICS - TAKING NINGBO AS AN EXAMPLE

Author:SUN Liang; HE Yi

ABSTRACT: Through fifteen years’ salvage work, the conservation of historical and cultural villages gradually develops from normalized production to accurate customized made. The idea of accurate protection based on characteristics requires efforts from three aspects: man-land relationship, social relationship, and regional relationship, in order to grasp the cultural connotation and spatial representation of historical and cultural villages and formulate elaborate and accurate protection content and measures. Taking Ningbo as an example, this paper proposes an integrated accurate protection method on geo-environment characteristics based on the organic development pattern in Yinwan Village which develops along mountain and lake; it proposes a courtyard-based accurate protection method on clan structure characteristics based on the society-space coupling relationship of Zoumatang Village; and it puts forward a linear accurate protection method on the external functional characteristics based on the linear space sequence of the ancient road of Qixiakeng Village. However, there is no universal method for accurate conservation applied for all villages. It is necessary to analyze the evolutionary logic and spatial feature of historical and cultural villages deeply so as to truly formulate planning and design adapted to local conditions

KEYWORDS: accurate conservation; village characteristics; historical and cultural village conservation; Ningbo

♦   LISTENING ART OF TRADITIONAL DWELLINGS IN ZHEJIANG: A CASE STUDY OF THE “TRADITIONAL VILLAGE SOUNDSCAPE” AND PROTECTION POLICY OF SIZHAI VILLAGE

Author:CHI Fang’ai; LI Gaomei; GUAN Binjun

ABSTRACT: Thi s pape r inve s t iga t e s and analyzes Sizhai Village, in order to research “the traditional village soundscape.” By means of the methods of literature consulting, questionnaire, data measurement, etc., the paper interprets the characteristics of “traditional village soundscape” in Sizhai village. From the viewpoints of natural soundscape, living soundscape, historic and cultural soundscape, and thinking soundscape, it concludes that the “traditional village soundscape” here is sweet-sounding, and can bring emotional enjoyment and spiritual pleasure to people. With the “traditional village soundscape” as a guideline, it is possible to make a village protection policy, providing some new directions for village protection. Furthermore, the research on the “traditional village soundscape” can bring some new viewpoints on life, society, and culture to acoustics studies.

KEYWORDS: “traditional village soundscape”; Sizhai Village; natural soundscape; living soundscape; historic and cultural soundscape

♦   GEOGRAPHICAL PROCESS OF THE ORIGIN OF NANJING ANCIENT CITY BEFORE EASTERN WU IN THE THREE KINGDOMS PERIOD

Author:YAO Yifeng

ABSTRACT: Geographical location is the primary research problem of urban construction. From the perspective of multi-scale geographical space, this paper explores the origin and early embryonic form of Nanjing City, so as to find the evolution track of urban historic space and a deeper way of sustainable development. The regional environment of Nanjing has its own independent geographical enclosure feature. Before 229 AD, when SUN Quan located the capital, Nanjing had more than 1,000-year history of human settlement activities, as there were villages distributed and gathered along the river in the Neolithic period, military castles in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, and counties in the Qin and Han dynasties. Despite the different view of each emperor, there was a consensus on the important role of the strategic places in this area. Although modern urban landscape concealed the most important geographical nature of Nanjing, by exploring the early urban origin form from the perspective of geographical space, this paper analyzes the pattern of regional differentiation, the evolution process of time and space, and the coupling of man-land relationship, so as to grasp the mechanism and profound essence of the landscape and features of ancient capital Nanjing in a broader scope and depth.

KEYWORDS: Nanjing; influence of the Yangtze River; geographical spaces; multi-scale; cityscape

♦   A QUANTITATIVE STUDY ON THE VISUAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE “TOWN” AND THE “MAUSOLEUM” IN THE HISTORICAL HERITAGE: A CASE STUDY OF QIANXIAN COUNTY, XIANYANG CITY, SHAANXI PROVINCE

Author:ZHANG Zhichao; FU Kai; MU Hao

ABSTRACT: In history, Qianxian County, as Fengtian Ancient Town of the Tang Dynasty, was the sacrifice city of Qianling Mausoleum. The pattern of the ancient town after thousands of years of development and the relationship between the mausoleum and the town constitute the main part of the history and culture of Qianxian. Taking visual relationship between the “town” and the “mausoleum” as the breakthrough point, this paper carries out restoration simulation of the spatial pattern of the county in each period and establishes a visual relationship by use of GIS spatial analysis technology. Then, with the help of theories of visual landscape and morphological typology, by dividing and building spatial form units of the county, the paper explores the relationship between the sight from a special fixed point and the urban pattern in different periods of time, and discusses its application in the urban renewal planning system. The paper hopes to provide reference for the practice of continuing city context, optimizing the urban landscape pattern, and highlighting the urban identity.

KEYWORDS: visual relationship; spatial form; urban renewal; Qianxian County

♦   CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL NIMBY CONFLICTS AND SOLUTIONS: WITH DUAL-GAME STRUCTURE AS AN ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK

Author:GUO Shaoqing

ABSTRACT: The NIMBY conflicts caused by the construction of garbage incineration plants frequently occur. This paper proposes that the main reason is the dual-game structure. In the dual games, the administrative departments form a strong incentive for chief officials, while the public and the enterprises winning the bidding of NIMBY projects in the jurisdiction form a weak incentive for the officials, which thus affect the behaviors of local officials. Consequently, the governance over NIMBY conflicts falls into a weird cycle characterized by “closed decision-making” and “call-off remediation”。 To optimize the governance of such conflicts, this paper puts forward three paths: reforming the decision-making mechanism of the government, promoting the government’s ability in information disposal, and improving the public interest litigation system concerning environmental issues.

KEYWORDS: dual-game structure; incentive mechanism; NIMBY conflict; public participation