City Planning Review

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City Planning Review(2019.1)

2019-02-01

♦  Consumption

Author:SHI Nan

♦  SHARING AND QUALITY

Author:SUN Shiwen; WU Tinghai; LI Zhigang; ZHANG Jing; HUANG Yaping; YUAN Qifeng; ZOU Bing; WANG Shifu; WANG Fuhai; DUAN Jin; SHI Nan; LONG Ying; YUAN Yuan; DUAN Degang

♦  REFORM OF SPATIAL PLANNING SYSTEM AND DISCIPLINARY DEVELOPMENT

Author:WU Weijia; WU Liangyong; SHI Nan; YUAN Qifeng; MEI Yaolin; YE Yumin; ZHANG Xiaoling; FENG Changchun; HE Mingjun; WANG Kai

♦  SHARED CITY: SELF-EXISTENCE? CO-EXISTENCE?

Author:Hok-Lin LEUNG; SHEN Chi; YANG Baojun; ZHANG Xiaoling; ZHOU Suhong; ZHOU Jie; TIAN Li; HOU Chengzhe; ZHAO Hu

♦  COORDINATED DEVELOPMENT MODE OF CROSS-BORDER REGION OF THE GUANGDONG-HONG KONG-MACAO GREAT BAY AREA: A CASE STUDY OF GUANGZHOU-FOSHAN

Author:WEI Zongcai; CHEN Tingting; LIU Yuting

ABSTRACT: In the new era, to promote the coordinated development of urban clusters is a national strategy, and the Guangdong-Hong Kong- Macao Great Bay Area is supposed to take on the mission of participating in global competition. Therefore, how to strengthen the coordinated development of cross-border region becomes a significant issue in the construction of the Great Bay Area. Taking Guangzhou-Foshan as a case, which is the cross-border region with the highest level of coordinated development at the national level, based on the theoretical perspective of multi-level governance, this paper investigates the roles of different levels of local governments in the process of cross-border region cooperation from dimensions of macro policy system construction and micro project, as well as further exploring the coordinated development pattern. It is found that, the “city government dominated cooperation mode” shaped by Guangzhou and Foshan is a useful attempt to promote the cross-border region cooperation but is still vulnerable and instable. And the communication platforms built between district and town governments are ineffective. Moreover, citizens are excluded from the process of cross-border region cooperation. It is also found that the effective intervention of the superior government is conducive to the coordinated implementation of public welfare and people’s livelihood projects. The research will enrich the academic discussion on regional governance and provide reference for the construction of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

KEYWORDS: Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Great Bay Area; cross-border region; coordinated development; multi-level governance; Guangzhou- Foshan

♦  EVOLUTION OF CAPITAL CONTROL CITIES AND CAPITAL SERVICE CITIES IN CHINA’S MAINLAND

Author:LI Tao; TANG Zilai; ZHANG Yina; ZHOU Rui

ABSTRACT: Based on the Chinese enterprises in the Forbes Global 2000 list and advanced producer service firms in GaWC175, this paper analyzes the evolution of capital control cities and capital service cities in 2006 - 2014 using approaches of command and control index as well as the interlocking network model. Then the residual analysis and cluster analysis have been used to examine the difference of main cities in urban functions and classification. It is found that the capacity of capital control and capital service of China’s main cities has increased rapidly. Although the polycentricity of the urban system has grown, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen always hold the top four. The main cities could be classified into four types which have different roles in the capacity of capital control and capital service. The capital control capacities of Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou have increased rapidly while the capital service capacities of Chengdu, Tianjin, Hangzhou, and Nanjing have increased rapidly.

KEYWORDS: urban system; interlocking network; capital control; capital service

♦  MODERN SIGNIFICANCE OF CHINESE URBAN PLANNING TRADITIONS

Author:WANG Shusheng

ABSTRACT: China has outstanding traditions of urban planning, which set up the historic foundation for theoretical planning system with Chinese characteristics. Thus, revealing the significance of traditional Chinese urban planning in modern context becomes the key link. Based on the historic experience from Chinese urban planning, this paper attempts to reveal the significance of traditional Chinese urban planning in modern context from four aspects: urban planning with natural landscape, urban humanistic and cultural space planning, urban heritage conservation and culture inheritance, urban planning in economic prosperous period. Chinese traditional urban planning emphasizes the integration between city and natural landscape and is good at setting up baseline of urban order based on the ingenuity of landscape. Furthermore, Chinese planning focuses on design of humanistic and cultural space structure as well as the role that planning plays in the cohesion of the will of people, inspiration of cultural ideal, and historic spirit inheritance. Besides, Chinese planning pays attention to the transformation of urban space through economic development and emphasizes the fundamental rules that new space should adhere to the original order.

KEYWORDS: planning traditions; Chinese wisdom; humanistic and cultural space structure; modern significance; indigenous planning

♦  ANALYSIS ON URBAN GREENBELT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE OUTER RING ROAD GREENBELT IN SHANGHAI

Author:YUAN Ye

ABSTRACT: Greenbelt is a basic spatial element of urban planning. The analysis on the greenbelt plan implementation is an important part of urban and rural planning studies. Firstly, according to the features of the greenbelt, this paper puts forward the principles for studying greenbelt policy implementation. Secondly, inspired by the research method of policy process, the paper builds a framework for the analysis on greenbelt plan implementation from three perspectives of the adaptability of plan implementation, the performance of plan intervention, and the influence of regional development on plan implementation. Then, it provides a brief introduction to the Shanghai Outer Ring Greenbelt, and based on this, it analyzes the implementation of the greenbelt plan from multiple perspectives by use of the analysis framework. The study finds that the greenbelt plan fails to adapt to the following urban development trends, government intervention is prominent only in a short period of time, and the impact of local development on the greenbelt is obvious. In the end, the paper points out that the function of the plan is limited, and the implementation of a plan should not only rely on the strength of the planning system itself, but also need the promotion by various factors and conditions together.

KEYWORDS: greenbelt; analysis on plan implementation; function of urban planning

♦  EVOLUTION MECHANISM AND CORE PROCESS OF EMPLOYMENT SPACE OF MIGRANT WORKERS

Author:WANG Hui; WU Xiao; CHEN Haiming

ABSTRACT: Since the reform and opening up, a large number of rural migrant workers have entered cities for job opportunities, occupying and gradually changing urban spatial ecology and structure. At the same time, the employment space of migrant workers in a city is also undergoing continuous evolution. Based on relevant theories, this paper first constructs an interpretation framework of “double ended & double layer” for the evolution of migrant workers’ employment space. Then, the paper analyzes the internal evolution mechanism of migrant workers’ employment space through the “dual effects” of motivity and resistance. Accordingly, it proposes a “double cycle” model consisting of “labor factor & space” and “capital factor & space,” to explain the core evolution process of migrant workers’ employment space. Finally, it deduces the “three stages” of the evolution of migrant workers’ employment space.

KEYWORDS: migrant workers; evolution of employment space; spatial feedback effect; spatial viscosity effect

♦  ON TERRITORIAL AND CITY PLANNING THOUGHTS IN CHENGMA OF GUANZI

Author:GUO Lu

ABSTRACT: Guanzi is one of the important sources of ancient Chinese planning thoughts, and the chapter of Chengma is the guiding principles of the planning thoughts of Guanzi. However, the comprehensive study on the planning thoughts in Chengma is absent. This paper adopts the method of documentary research with the combination of demonstration and construction, to study the territorial and city planning thoughts in Chengma. The basic structure is revealed through the study of the text of Chengma, based on which the connotations of the planning thought system are analyzed from four aspects with the related chapters of Guanzi and other pre- Qin documents as supplementary evidences: land resources assessment; construction of space unit; establishment of territorial spatial classification system; and relationship between land and city. As a conclusion, the characteristic of the planning thoughts in Chengma is demonstrated as “from land to city with the land as the base.”

KEYWORDS: Guanzi; Chengma; territorial planning; city planning; land

♦  THE IMPOSSIBLE TRINITY OF URBAN PLANNING: A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON PLANNING VALUE

Author:ZENG Xiangkun

ABSTRACT: Based on the “impossible trinity” model in Western economic theory, this paper proposes that a highly market-oriented economy, fully social democracy, and stable planning order constitute the “impossible trinity” of urban planning field. Its internal logic is the contradiction between market rationality and social rationality in the process of urban development, as well as the coordination interface of the contradiction, i.e., planning order. Revolving around this model, it is possible to discuss the status, rationality, value, and practice of planning from a new perspective, and get the following main points. ① As to urban development, planning order should have equal weight with economic and social development, rather than simply following and subordinating to economic and social development and change. Therefore, planning status should be strengthened and return to the human nature in the formation process of spatial order. ② Planning rationality should firstly consider “what cannot be done,” and the key is moderation; secondly, the essence of planning order is that “each has its suitable place, and made the best use.” ③ Planning value is reflected in defining “what is right or what is wrong,” making no comment on “merits and demerits,” and being cautious of “possibilities and choices,” to build a planning order that is principled, procedural, and inclusive. ④ In planning practice, it is necessary to emphasize the duality of the technical system and to strengthen the combination of spatial planning and policy design.

KEYWORDS: urban planning; impossible trinity; planning status; planning rationality; planning value

♦  CONCEPT DISCRIMINATION AND SPACE SUCCESSION OF MIXED LAND USE IN URBAN CENTRAL DISTRICT: TAKING XINJIEKOU CENTRAL DISTRICT OF NANJING AS A CASE

Author:SHI Beixiang; YANG Junyan

ABSTRACT: With the constant deepening of the market economy, the competition of urban space is intensifying. Especially in the urban central district, the intensified competition of functions made the scale and types of mixed land use become increasingly diversified. Based on the concept discrimination of mixed land use, this paper proposes the concept connotation and classification of mixed land use. Moreover, based on the research data accumulated over many years, it takes the development of mixed land us of the Nanjing Xinjiekou Central District between 1978 and 2008 as example, and uses vector calculation with related policy and management background, to research the spatial distribution and form of the mixed land, therefore figuring out multiple laws of mixed land, as well as discussing the management and control of the mixed land use.

KEYWORDS: urban central district; mixed land use; spatial succession; quantitative research

♦  EVOLUTION OF JOBS-HOUSING SPATIAL MISMATCH IN GUANGZHOU FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SOCIAL DIFFERENTIATION

Author:ZHONG Ye; ZHAO Miaoxi

ABSTRACT: In the context that the multi-center urban system is not well developed, different from the total jobs-housing balance in the general sense, the structural jobs-housing issues are more subtle and the corresponding negative impacts are more extensive and profound. From the perspective of social differentiation, integrating the spatial data of resident population and enterprise employment population, this paper analyzes the distribution of living and working populations in Guangzhou, the traffic characteristics and social isolation of different occupational groups, the jobs-housing balance degree, and so on. The research finds that, the living and working populations tend to distribute in the central city as well as the central parts of the peripheral areas in Guangzhou. The central areas have the highest population density and integrate various factors. However, the jobs-housing mismatch degree based on industry accumulation is relatively higher and shows a trend of gradual decrease from inside to outside. Compared with the distribution of the population with a lower occupational status, the distribution of that with a higher occupational status is mainly in the city center. In addition, the urban spatial structure is characterized by a high proportion of employment in the central city and a high proportion of living in the peripheral areas, based on which the paper puts forward the social differentiation spatial mode for the evolution of jobs-housing matching in Guangzhou. The paper points out that the key to jobs-housing matching in cities lies in improving the ability of peripheral secondary centers in providing employment opportunities and service facilities. On the one hand, it should meet the people’s needs for convenient transportation and jobs-housing balance; on the other hand, it should promote the multi-center development in cities and improve the combination of urban functions from the spatial dimension.

KEYWORDS: social differentiation; jobs-housing mismatch; Guangzhou; evolution

♦  RURAL LAND SYSTEM REFORM AND CONCENTRATED RESIDENTIAL PATTERN EVOLUTION: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTHERN JIANGSU

Author:LI Guangbin; WANG Yong; GU Renxu

ABSTRACT: Through reconstituting land property rights, improving efficiency of land resources allocation, and adjusting distribution of land value-added revenue, land system reform have profound influences on the evolution of concentrated residential pattern. Taking Southern Jiangsu as an example, this paper builds a correlation analysis framework of the rural land system based on concentrated residential pattern evolution, and analyzes systematically the functional mechanism of rural land system of rural concentrated residential. It is found that, in the process that rural land system was reformed from “decentralization of power and transfer of profits” to “centralization of power and competing with the people” and to “returning right and endowing power,” pattern evolution of rural concentrated residence in Southern Jiangsu are as follows: from concentrated residence in village under land capitalization led by village collective organization, to concentrated residence in suburb under land capitalization led by local government, and to concentrated residence across boundary of villages under rural homestead displacement. At last, based on the reform of rural land system, this paper further discusses the mechanism improvement of rural concentrated community construction, and beautiful countryside construction.

KEYWORDS: rural concentrated residence; rural land system; land capitalization; Southern Jiangsu

♦  APPLICATION OF COMPUTER VISION IN URBAN STUDIES: REVIEW AND PROSPECT

Author:LIU Lun; WANG Hui

ABSTRACT: Urban images, in various types of format, are always important sources of records for urban development and transition. In the era of Internet and big data, the burgeoning photo sharing websites, social media, and street views have further generated an unprecedented volume of online urban images. Meanwhile, the computer vision technique in the field of artificial intelligence has made great progress after more than forty years’ development. It is now possible to let a computer read and interpret urban images automatically and in a large scale, which has given rise to a few highly interesting studies, as well as an emerging field of interdisciplinary research. By reviewing the works that innovatively apply computer vision in urban studies, the paper points out that such applications are mainly in the aspects of urban environment perception and evaluation, urban and architectural culture identification, coupling analysis on the built environment and socio-economic development, and landscape and urban design evaluation. In addition, the paper discusses the potential of computer vision in the urban cognitive research, computational urban cultural modelling, technical innovation of urban design, etc., and also points out that this field is confronted with constraints and challenges in terms of technical method, research object, as well as value choice.

KEYWORDS: computer vision; machine learning; urban studies; urban design; street view image