National Bureau of Statistics of China
February 28, 2021
IX. Households Income and Consumption and Social Security
In 2020, the per capita disposable income nationwide was 32,189 yuan, an increase of 4.7 percent over that of the previous year or a real increase of 2.1 percent after deducting price factors. The median of per capita disposable income nationwide was 27,540 yuan, up by 3.8 percent. In terms of usual residence, the per capita disposable income of urban households was 43,834 yuan, up by 3.5 percent over that of 2019, or a real growth of 1.2 percent after deducting price factors. The median of per capita disposable income of urban households was 40,378 yuan, up by 2.9 percent. The per capita disposable income of rural households was 17,131 yuan, up by 6.9 percent over that of the previous year, or 3.8 percent in real terms after deducting price factors. The median of per capita disposable income of rural households was 15,204 yuan, up by 5.7 percent. The urban-rural per capita disposable income ratio was 2.56, down by 0.08 over that of the previous year. Grouped by income quintile, the per capita disposable income of low-income group reached 7,869 yuan, the lower-middle-income group 16,443 yuan, the middle-income group 26,249 yuan, the upper-middle-income group 41,172 yuan and the high-income group 80,294 yuan. The per capita monthly income of migrant workers was 4,072 yuan, increased by 2.8 percent over that of the previous year.
The national per capita consumption expenditure was 21,210 yuan, down by 1.6 percent over that of the previous year, or a real decrease of 4.0 percent after deducting price factors. Specifically, the per capita consumption expenditure on services totaled 9,037 yuan, down by 8.6 percent over that of the previous year, accounting for 42.6 percent of the per capita consumption expenditure. In terms of usual residence, the per capita consumption expenditure of urban households was 27,007 yuan, down by 3.8 percent, or 6.0 percent in real terms after deducting price factors. The per capita consumption expenditure of rural households was 13,713 yuan, up by 2.9 percent, or a real decrease of 0.1 percent after deducting price factors. The national Engel’s Coefficient stood at 30.2 percent, with that of urban and rural households standing at 29.2 percent and 32.7 percent respectively.
Figure 16: National Per Capita Disposable Income and its Growth Rates 2016-2020
Figure 17: National Per Capita Consumption Expenditure and Composition in 2020
By the end of 2020, a total of 456.38 million people participated in basic endowment insurance program for urban workers, an increase of 21.50 million over that by the end of 2019. A total of 542.44 million people participated in basic endowment insurance program for urban and rural residents, an increase of 9.78 million. A total of 1,361.01 million people participated in basic medical insurance program, an increase of 6.93 million. Of this total, 344.23 million people participated in the program for workers, an increase of 14.98 million, and 1,016.78 million people participated in the program for urban and rural residents. Some 216.89 million people participated in unemployment insurance program, an increase of 11.47 million. The number of people receiving unemployment insurance payment stood at 2.70 million by the end of 2020. A total of 267.70 million people participated in work-related injury insurance, an increase of 12.91 million, of which 89.34 million were migrant workers, an increase of 3.18 million. A total of 235.46 million people participated in maternity insurance programs, an increase of 21.29 million. Minimum living allowances were granted to 8.05 million urban residents and 36.21 million rural residents, and 4.47 million rural residents living in extreme poverty received relief and assistance and 13.41 million people received temporary assistance. A total of 89.90 million people were financed to participate in basic medical insurance program and direct assistance was granted to 73.00 million recipients. National subsidies and allowances were provided to 8.37 million veterans and other entitled people in 2020.
By the end of 2020, there were altogether 41 thousand social welfare institutions providing accommodation, of which 38 thousand were elderly caring organizations and 735 were children caring organizations. The social welfare institutions provided 8.509 million beds, of which 8.238 million were for the elderly and 98 thousand were for children. By the end of 2020, there were 29 thousand community service centers and 393 thousand community service stations.
X. Science & Technology and Education
Expenditures on research and experimental development activities (R&D) were worth 2,442.6 billion yuan in 2020, up by 10.3 percent over that of 2019, accounting for 2.40 percent of GDP. Of this total, 150.4 billion yuan was used for basic research programs. A total of 198 research projects were arranged under the national science and technology major projects and 45,700 projects were financed by the National Natural Science Foundation. By the end of 2020, there were altogether 522 state key laboratories in operation, 350 national engineering research centers (national engineering laboratories), 1,636 state-level enterprise technology centers and 212 demonstration centers for business startups and innovation. There were 1,173 state-level technology business incubators, and 2,386 national mass makerspaces. A total of 3,639 thousand patents were authorized, up by 40.4 percent over that of the previous year. The number of PCT patent applications accepted was 72 thousand. By the end of 2020, the number of patents in force was 12,193 thousand, of which 2,213 thousand were invention patents from home. The number of invention patents per 10,000 people was estimated to be 15.8. Trademark registration totaled 5,761 thousand, down by 10.1 percent over that of the previous year. A total of 550 thousand technology transfer contracts were signed, representing 2,825.2 billion yuan in value, up by 26.1 percent over that of the previous year.
Figure 18: The Expenditure on Research and Experimental Development Activities (R&D) and its Growth Rates 2016-2020
Table 15: Number of Patents Authorized and Patents in Force in 2020
The year 2020 saw 35 times of successful satellite launches. The successful launch of Chang'e-5 brought home moon samples for the first time, and China’s first Mars exploration mission named Tianwen-1 was successfully launched. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) project officially went online. China's Beidou-3 Navigation Satellite System was officially commissioned. The quantum computer prototype “Jiuzhang” was successfully created. The full-depth deep-sea manned submersible “Fendouzhe” successfully completed the 10,000-meter sea trial.
By the end of 2020, there were altogether 852 national quality inspection centers. There were 724 agencies for product quality and management system and service certification, accumulatively 790,000 enterprises were certified. A total of 2,252 national standards were developed or revised in the year, including 1,584 new standards. The qualification rate of manufactured products reached 93.39 percent.
In 2020, the post-graduate education enrollment was 3,140 thousand students with 1.107 million new students and 729 thousand graduates. The general tertiary education enrollment was 32.853 million students with 9.675 million new students and 7.972 million graduates. Vocational secondary schools had 16.634 million enrolled students, including 6.447 million new entrants, and 4.849 million graduates. Senior secondary schools had 24.945 million enrolled students, including 8.764 million new entrants, and 7.865 million graduates. Students enrolled in junior secondary schools totaled 49.141 million, including 16.321 million new entrants, and 15.353 million graduates. The country had a primary education enrollment of 107.254 million students, including 18.081 million new entrants, and 16.403 million graduates. There were 881 thousand students enrolled in special education schools, with 149 thousand new entrants and 121 thousand graduates. Kindergartens accommodated 48.183 million children. The number of students graduating from compulsory education reached 95.2 percent of the total enrollment, and the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education reached 91.2 percent.
Figure 19: Enrollment in Education 2016-2020
XI. Culture and Tourism, Public Health and Sports
By the end of 2020, there were 2,027 art-performing groups and 3,510 museums in the culture and tourism system throughout China. A total of 3,203 public libraries received 569.53 million people. There were 3,327 cultural centers. Subscribers to cable television programs numbered 210 million, in which 201 million subscribed to digital cable television programs. By the end of 2020, radio broadcasting and television broadcasting coverage rates were 99.4 percent and 99.6 percent respectively. A total of 7,476 episodes of 202 TV series and 116,688 minutes of TV cartoons were made in 2020. The country produced 531 feature movies and 119 popular science movies, documentaries, animation and special movies. A total of 27.7 billion copies of newspapers and 2.0 billion copies of magazines were issued, and 10.1 billion copies of books were published. The average number of books possessed per person was estimated to be 7.24 copies. By the end of the year, there were 4,234 archives in China and 176.59 million files were made accessible to the public. The business revenue of enterprises above the designated size engaged in culture and related industries reached 9,851.4 billion yuan, up by 2.2 percent over that of the previous year on a comparable basis.
The year 2020 registered 2.88 billion domestic tourists, down by 52.1 percent over that of the previous year. Of this total, there were 2.07 billion tourists from urban areas, a decrease of 53.8 percent; and 810 million tourists from rural areas, a decrease of 47.0 percent. Domestic tourism revenue was 2,228.6 billion yuan, down by 61.1 percent. Of this total, tourists from urban areas spent 1,796.7 billion yuan, down by 62.2 percent; and tourists from rural areas spent 432.0 billion yuan, down by 55.7 percent.
Figure 20: The Person-times of Domestic Tourists and its Growth Rates 2016-2020
By the end of 2020, there were 1,023,000 medical and health institutions in China, including 35,000 hospitals. Of all the hospitals, 12,000 were public, and 24,000 were private. Of the 971,000 medical and health institutions at grass-root level, there were 36,000 town and township health centers, 35,000 community health service centers, 290,000 clinics and 610,000 village clinics. Of the 14,000 professional public health institutions, 3,384 were disease control and prevention centers and 2,736 were health monitoring institutions. By the end of 2020, there were 10.66 million medical technical personnel in China, including 4.08 million licensed doctors and licensed assistant doctors and 4.71 million registered nurses. The medical and health institutions in China possessed 9.11 million beds, of which, hospitals possessed 7.13 million and township health centers had 1.39 million. The total number of medical visits and hospital discharges in 2020 reached 7.82 billion and 230 million respectively. By the end of 2020, a total of 87,071 confirmed cases of COVID-19 had been reported nationwide, 82,067 infected had been cured and discharged from hospital, and 4,634 people died. A total of 8,177 medical and health institutions across the country provide nucleic acid testing services, with daily nucleic acid testing capacity reached 11.53 million.
Figure 21: Year-end Number of Medical Technical Personnel 2016-2020
There were altogether 3.713 million sports venues. The sports venue area totaled 3.10 billion square meters and the per capita sports venue area was estimated to be 2.20 square meters. In 2020, Chinese athletes won 4 world championships in 3 sports events and broke 1 world record. Chinese physically-challenged athletes won 24 world championships in 6 international sports competitions. The year 2020 saw 37.2 percent of people aged 7 and above frequently participated in physical exercises.
XII. Resources, Environment and Emergency Management
In 2020, the total supply of state-owned land for construction use was 658 thousand hectares, an increase of 5.5 percent over that of the previous year. Of this total, the supply for mining storage was 167 thousand hectares, up by 13.6 percent; that for real estate was 155 thousand hectares, up by 9.3 percent; and that for infrastructure facilities was 337 thousand hectares, up by 0.3 percent.
The total stock of water resources in 2020 was 3,096.3 billion cubic meters.
In 2020, the total area of afforestation reached 6.77 million hectares, of which 2.89 million hectares were afforested by manpower, accounting for 42.7 percent of the total. The land area improved by grass plantation was 2.83 million hectares. By the end of 2020, there were 474 national natural reserves. A total of 60 thousand square kilometers of land have been saved from soil erosion.
Preliminary estimation indicated that the total energy consumption in 2020 amounted to 4.98 billion tons of standard coal equivalent, up by 2.2 percent over that of 2019. The consumption of coal increased by 0.6 percent; crude oil, up by 3.3 percent; natural gas, up by 7.2 percent; and electric power, up by 3.1 percent. The consumption of coal accounted for 56.8 percent of the total energy consumption, 0.9 percentage point lower than that of 2019, while clean energy consumption, such as natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power and wind power accounted for 24.3 percent, 1.0 percentage point higher. The comprehensive energy consumption per unit calcium carbide by key energy-intensive industrial enterprises went down by 2.1 percent, per unit synthetic ammonia up by 0.3 percent, per ton steel down by 0.3 percent and per unit electrolytic aluminium down by 1.0 percent. The standard coal consumption per kilowatt-hour of thermal power generation decreased by 0.6 percent. The carbon dioxide emission per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP was cut by 1.0 percent.
Figure 22: The Proportion of Clean Energy Consumption in the Total Energy Consumption 2016-2020
Area of offshore oceanic water met the national quality standard Grade I and II accounted for 77.4 percent; that met Grade III standard 7.7 percent; and water of Grade IV or inferior quality 14.9 percent.
Of the 324 cities subject to noise monitoring program, 4.3 percent enjoyed fairly good environment, 66.4 percent had good environment, 28.7 percent had fair environment, 0.6 percent had poor environment in downtown areas.
The average temperature in 2020 was 10.25℃, down by 0.09℃ compared with that of the previous year. Typhoons hit China 5 times in 2020.
In 2020, natural disasters hit 19.96 million hectares of crops, of which 2.71 million hectares of crops were demolished. Flood, waterlogging and geological disasters caused a direct economic loss of 268.6 billion yuan. Droughts caused a direct economic loss of 24.9 billion yuan. Disasters caused by low temperature, frost and snow made a total direct economic loss of 15.4 billion yuan. Oceanic disasters caused a direct economic loss of 800 million yuan. The country recorded 20 earthquakes with magnitude 5.0 and over, 5 of which caused disasters, causing a direct economic loss about 1.8 billion yuan. The year 2020 witnessed 1,153 forest fires, with 9 thousand hectares of forests damaged.
The death toll due to work accidents amounted to 27,412 people. Work accidents in industrial, mining and commercial companies caused 1.301 deaths out of every 100 thousand employees, down by 11.7 percent over that of 2019. The death toll for one million tons of coal produced in coalmines was 0.059 people, down by 28.9 percent. The road traffic death toll per 10 thousand vehicles was 1.66 people, down by 7.8 percent.
1. The median of per capita income refers to the per capita income of household lied in the middle of all surveyed households which are ranked from low to high (or high to low) based on per capita income level.
2. The income quintile refers to the five equal partitions of all surveyed households, who are ranked from low to high based on per capita income level. The top 20 percent with the highest income are classified as high-income group, and the other four levels are upper-middle-income group, middle-income group, lower-middle-income group and low-income group.
3. The consumption expenditure on services refers to the spending by households on services for daily lives including catering, education, culture and recreation and medical services.
4. Rural residents living in extreme poverty refer to the aged, the disabled and the minor under 16 years of age in rural areas who have no ability to work, no sources of income and no statutory obligors to provide for them, bring them up or support them, or whose statutory obligors have no ability to fulfill their obligations.
5. Temporary assistance refers to emergent and transitional assistance the government provides to families or individuals who experience hardships because of emergencies, unexpected harm, major diseases or other unusual factors and are not covered by other forms of social assistance programs or still suffer hardships after receiving other social assistance programs.
6. Direct assistance includes inpatient and outpatient assistance provided by medical insurance departments and direct assistance provided by other relevant departments.
7. The beds provided by social welfare institutions include beds provided by adoption agencies, aid agencies and community agencies.
8. The state-level technology business incubators are technology-based business startup service providers consistent with the Administrative Measures for Technology Business Incubators that provide physical space, shared facilities and professional services with the mission of advancing transformation of technological achievements, cultivating technological enterprises and fostering the entrepreneurial spirit. They should be approved and accredited by the Ministry of Science and Technology.
9. The national mass makerspaces are new service platform for entrepreneurship and innovation that are in conformity with the Guidelines on Developing Mass Makerspaces and are reviewed and registered by the Ministry of Science and Technology in accordance with the Provisional Registration Regulations on National Mass Makerspaces.
10. The number of PCT patent applications accepted refers to the number of PCT patent application accepted by the State Intellectual Property Office which acts as the receiving office of PCT patent application. PCT is the abbreviation of Patent Cooperation Treaty, which is a treaty for international cooperation in the field of patents.
11. The qualification rate of manufactured products is the ratio of the samples that have passed the sampling quality test, the process of which follows certain methods, procedure and standard, to the total amount of the sampled products. The survey samples cover 29 sectors of the manufacturing industry.
12. Vocational secondary schools include regular specialized secondary schools, adult specialized secondary schools, vocational high schools and skilled workers schools.
13. The people received by the public libraries refer to the number of people who visit libraries and use library services in the year, including borrowing and reading books, consultation and attending readers’ programs.
14. Special movies refer to those using different display modes in terms of projection techniques, equipment and program as compared with the ordinary cinemas, such as IMAX movies, 3D movies, 4D movies, multidimensional movies and full dome movies.
15. The average number of books possessed per person refers to the average number of books published in the year that can be possessed per person in China.
16. The total number of medical visits refers to the number of people receiving medical services, including outpatient services, emergency treatment, home visits, appointment-based diagnosis and treatment, health check-up of a specific item, and health consultation and guidance (excluding health lectures).
17. The number of hospital discharges refers to the number of inpatients discharged from hospitals in the reporting period, including those who are discharged from hospitals or transferred to other medical institutions following doctors’ advice, discharged from hospitals without doctors’ permission, dead or other situations. The number of people who are recovered from family sickbeds is excluded.
18. The sports venues belonging to armed forces and railway system are excluded in the census on sports venues.
19. The sports venue area refers to area used for physical training, sports competitions and physical fitness.
20. The year 2020 has seen a significant decline of international sports events due to COVID-19, and the number of Chinese athletes winning world championships and setting world records has decreased compared with previous years.
21. Data covers the international sports events from January to March 2020 (participation in international events was suspended since April 2020 due to COVID-19).
22. The proportion of people who frequently participate in physical exercises comes from the National Fitness Activities Survey in 2020. People who frequently participate in physical exercises refer to those who participate in physical exercises at least 3 times a week, with each time lasting for at least 30 minutes and having a moderate intensity and above.
23. Total supply of state-owned land for construction use refers to the total amount of state-owned land for construction use with the land-use right transferred, allocated or leased to units or individuals through signed transaction contracts and allocation decisions by the municipal or county governments according to annual land supply plan and in line with relevant laws in the reporting period.
24. Land used for real estate refers to the sum of land used for commercial service and for residence.
25. The land area improved by grass plantation refers to the area of increased forage grass by adopting measures such as sowing and cultivation plus the area where primitive vegetation and the ecology of grasslands have been improved by measures such as restraining the content of salt, alkali and sand, improving the quality of soil and fencing the forests.
26. Offshore oceanic water quality is evaluated by the area method.
In this Communiqué, data of newly increased employed people in urban areas, registered unemployment rate in urban areas, social security and skilled workers schools are from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security; data of foreign exchange reserves and exchange rates are from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange; data of environment monitoring and the carbon dioxide emission per 10,000 yuan worth of GDP are from the Ministry of Ecology and Environment; data of finance are from the Ministry of Finance; data of market entities, quality inspection, the formulation and revision of national standards and qualification rate of manufactured products are from the State Administration for Market Regulation; data of output of aquatic products and area of farmland newly equipped with effective water-saving irrigation systems are from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs; data of production of timber, area of afforestation, land area improved by grass plantation, and national natural reserves are from the National Forestry and Grassland Administration; data of area of farmland newly equipped with irrigation system, water resources and land newly saved from soil erosion are from the Ministry of Water Resources; data of installed power generation capacity, new power transformer equipment with a capacity of 220 kilovolts and above and electricity consumption are from the China Electricity Council; data of volume of freight handled by ports, container shipping of ports, highway transportation, waterway transportation, new and rebuilt highways and new throughput capacity of berths for over 10,000-tonnage ships are from the Ministry of Transport; data of railway transportation, new railways put into operation, new double-track railways put into operation and electrified railways put into operation are from China Railway; data of civil aviation and new civil transportation airports are from the Civil Aviation Administration of China; data of motor vehicles for civilian use and traffic accidents are from the Ministry of Public Security; data of postal service are from the State Post Bureau; data of telecommunication, software revenue, and new lines of optical-fiber cables are from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology; data of internet users and internet coverage are from China Internet Network information Center; data of housing units rebuilt or renovated in rundown urban areas and for poverty-stricken rural households with economic status registered at the local governments in the fight against poverty are from the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development; data of imports and exports of goods are from the General Administration of Customs; data of imports and exports of services, foreign direct investment, outbound direct investment, overseas contracted projects and overseas labor contracts are from the Ministry of Commerce; data of tax and fee cuts are from the State Taxation Administration; data of monetary finance and corporate debenture bonds are from the People’s Bank of China; data of funds raised through domestic exchange markets are from China Securities Regulatory Commission; data of the insurance sector are from China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission; data of medical insurance, maternity insurance, people financed to participate in basic medical insurance program, and direct assistance recipients are from the National Healthcare and Security Administration; data of urban and rural minimum living allowances, relief and assistance granted to rural residents living in extreme poverty, temporary assistance and social services are from the Ministry of Civil Affairs; data of entitled people are from the Ministry of Veterans Affairs; data of national science and technology major projects, state key laboratories, state-level technology business incubators, national mass makerspaces and technology transfer contracts are from the Ministry of Science and Technology; data of natural science foundation projects are from the National Natural Science Foundation; data of national engineering research centers (national engineering laboratories), enterprise technical centers and demonstration centers for business startups and innovation are from the National Development and Reform Commission; data of patents and trademarks are from the National Intellectual Property Administration; data of satellite launches are from the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense; data of education are from the Ministry of Education; data of art-performing groups, museums, public libraries, cultural centers and tourism are from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism; data of television and radio programs are from the National Radio and Television Administration; data of movies are from the China Film Administration; data of newspapers, magazines and books are from the National Press and Publication Administration; data of files are from the State Archives Administration; data of medical care and health are from the National Health Commission; data of sports are from the General Administration of Sport; data of physically-challenged athletes are from the China Disabled Persons’ Federation; data of supply of state-owned land for construction use and direct economic loss caused by oceanic disasters are from the Ministry of Natural Resources; data of average temperature and typhoons are from the China Meteorological Administration; data of areas of crops hit by natural disasters, direct economic loss caused by flood, waterlogging and geological disasters, direct economic loss caused by droughts, direct economic loss caused by low temperature, frost and snow, forest fires, areas of forests damaged and workplace accidents are from the Ministry of Emergency Management; data of the number of earthquakes and direct economic loss caused by earthquakes are from the China Earthquake Administration; all the other data are from the National Bureau of Statistics.
Edited by Bao Lianying